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HSRCMiddle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptation Market & Technologies – 2022-2030 – With Corona & COP26 Impacts
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Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptation Market & Technologies - 2022-2030 – With Corona & COP26 Impacts

Bottom-up Research of 122 Submarkets. Cumulative 2022-30 Market $2.8 Trillion.

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HITACHI
Thales
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L3Harris
Huawei
Leidos
NEC
Toshiba
Deloitte
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Description

 

The 376-page the Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptation Market & Technologies – 2022-2030 – With Corona & COP26 Impacts report contains a thorough analysis of 16 sectors, 60 technology, 10 national and 5 revenue source markets, detailing 122 submarkets. According to the report, the cumulative 2022-30 market size will reach $2.8 trillion

 

The region petrol-gas countries, North Africa and Israel, offer multi-trillion business opportunities

 

IPCC-2022 Evaluation of the Temperature rise on the Mediterranean Region vs. Europe

Source: IPCC Report Feb. 28, 2022

Global warming is causing longer dry seasons in the region, hotter heatwaves and record-setting temperature spikes. Rainfall is projected to decrease sharply in some places, leaving cultivators to dig more wells, depleting aquifers and affecting potentially irreparable environmental harm. For most of the region, the trend is towards a drier, warmer, more gloomy future.

The Russian  invasion of Ukraine, which has sent wheat prices surging, will cause widespread hardships in the Middle East, perhaps forcing subsidy cuts that leave citizens hungry.

Russia and the Ukraine Wheat Imports to the MEA – 2021

Sources: ITC, The Economist

The agriculture sector share of freshwater pumped from ground or surface water sources is about 80%. Crops depend entirely on irrigation in the arid region.

Some governments (e.g., of the Gulf states, Israel and Turkey) manage the water crisis with the state of the art desalination plants.

The expanding share of renewables, growth in power demand, and balancing supply and demand on a real-time basis necessitate the integration of modern, digitized energy storage solutions.

Despite its significant potential in this area, the ME&A suffers from the limited role of storage in networks. To overcome this, regulations will need to evolve to reflect energy storage’s current functions, including leveraging flexibility from consumer aggregation or grid congestion.

ME&A is a strong candidate for becoming a major hydrogen-exporting region thanks to its combination of low-cost gas resources and renewable energy. A few countries, such as Saudi Arabia and Morocco, have already made headways as low-cost exporters of blue and green hydrogen, net-zero ammonia and other low-carbon products, while other countries, such as Oman, UAE, and Egypt are attempting to catch up.

As a whole, the ME&A region added an estimated 3 GW of solar power in 2021, doubling its total from 2020   and will reach almost 20 GW by 2025. Wind and other sources such as hydropower are also coming into their own as countries step up their energy diversification plans.

Why Buy:

  • Comprehensive Report. It’s a comprehensive strategic investigation of the Middle East & Africa Warming Mitigation & Adaptation markets.
  • Bottom-up Research. The report provides you with exhaustive bottom-up research of 122 climate change mitigation and adaptation-related markets.
  • Extensive Research.  The report analysts conducted interviews with dozens of experts. It reviewed over 660 reports, documents and papers published by other experts (including, for example, IEA, IRENA, the UN, Fraunhofer and more).
  • Multi-Source Intelligence Verification. With a highly fragmented market, we addressed each dollar spent. The Middle East & Africa warming mitigation market was analyzed and crosschecked via four orthogonal viewpoints: technologies and services, sectors, countries and revenue sources.
  • COP26 Revision. To guarantee the accuracy of the data and market size forecasts, we revised the data by following and analyzing the Nov. 2021 Glasgow COP26 meetings deliberations of the Middle East & Africa national pledges.
  • Money Trail. The report offers the only mega-study of ‘when?’, ‘where?’, ‘why?’ and ‘how much?’ of the cumulative 2022-2030 $2.8 trillion go to market.
  • Report Excel. Once you buy the report, you can get for a nominal price its Excel version.
  • Customized for Decision-Makers. This report aims to provide today’s strategic decision-makers with an expert 360-degree, time-sensitive, detailed view of this interconnected market.

Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptation Market Segmentation Vectors

What does the “Middle East & Africa Warming Mitigation & Adaptation Market & Technologies – 2022-2030 – With Corona & COP26 Impacts” report give you?

A. Questions answered in this report include:

  • What will the 2022-2030 market size be?
  • How do COP26 & Corona affect the market?
  • Which submarkets provide attractive business opportunities?
  • What drives customers to invest?
  • What are the Warming Mitigation technologies & services trends?
  • What are the challenges to market penetration & growth?
  • How much are Middle East & African countries expected to invest in warming mitigation?

B. The Middle East & Africa Warming Mitigation & Adaptation market data is analyzed via 4 independent perspectives:

  1. By 60 Technologies and Services:
  • Biological Carbon Capture & Sequestration
  • Carbon Capture & Storage
  • Carbon Capture & Utilization
  • Hydroelectric Power
  • Geothermal Power Generation
  • Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling 
  • Bioenergy
  • Marine Power
  • Solar PV (Utility Scale)
  • Rooftop Solar PV
  • Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)
  • Direct Solar Water Heating
  • Offshore Wind Power
  • Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR)
  • Air Sourced Heat Pumps
  • Passenger BEV Cars
  • Two & Three-Wheeler BEVs
  • Freight BEVs
  • Electric Buses
  • Other BEVs
  • EV Charging Systems
  • Hydrogen Vehicles
  • Hydrogen Electrolyzes
  • Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure
  • Green Hydrogen Production
  • Methane Abatement
  • Green Cement
  • Green Steel
  • Passive Green Buildings
  • Grid Modernization
  • Desalination Plants
  • Onshore Wind Power
  • Nuclear Energy Plants > 1 GW
  • Small Nuclear Reactors 
  • Other Renewable Energy
  • Grid-Scale Battery Storage
  • Thermal Energy Storage
  • Compressed-Air Storage
  • Hydroelectric Energy Storage 
  • Other Energy Storage Modalities
  • Waste to Energy Plants
  • Low Carbon Fuels Manufacturing Plants
  • Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR)
  • Precision Agriculture
  • Regenerative agriculture
  • Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure
  • Water Redeemable Systems
  • Precision Irrigation
  • Climate Adapted Agriculture
  • Reforestation
  • Bioremediation
  • Floods Control
  • Wildfire Mitigation
  • Weather Monitoring, Modeling & Forecasting
  • Extreme Weather Public Warning Systems
  • GHG Emission Tracking
  • Big Data & AI
  • Cybersecurity
  • ICT (W/O Cyber, AI, Big Data)
  • Other

 2. By 5 Revenue Source Markets:

  • Infrastructure
  • Product Sales
  • Maintenance
  • Upgrades
  • Other

3. By 11 National Markets:

  • Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Iran
  • Israel
  • Kuwait
  • Saudi Arabia
  • South Africa
  • Turkey
  • UAE
  • Rest of MEA

4. By 16 Sectors

  • GHG Capture 
  • Renewable Energy
  • Energy Storage
  • Zero Emission Electric Utility Plants
  • Green Fuel Production Plants
  • Passive & Active Heating and Cooling
  • Electric Vehicles Fleet
  • Hydrogen Economy
  • Green Materials
  • Agriculture, Forests & Land
  • Water
  • Energy Efficient Buildings
  • Extreme Weather Events Mitigation
  • Software
  • Electric Grid 
  • Other Sectors  

C. Detailed market analysis frameworks are provided, including:

  • Market drivers & inhibitors
  • Business opportunities
  • SWOT analysis
  • Competitive analysis
  • Business environment
  • The 2020-2030 market
  • Industry Value Chain   
  • Financing & Loans       
  • Governmental R&D Funding    

D. Companies mentioned in the report: 

  • 7c Solarparken
  • Aalborg CSP
  • ABB Environmental Services Inc.
  • Abengoa
  • ABN AMRO
  • ABO Wind
  • Access Power
  • Acciona
  • ACTIAM
  • ACWA Power
  • Advanced Cyclone Systems, S.A.
  • Aeroqual
  • Ag Leader Technology
  • AGCO Corporation
  • AgJunction, Inc.
  • AIMCo
  • Airmar Technology Corporation
  • Aker Clean Carbon AS
  • Alectris
  • Alfa Laval
  • All Weather, Inc
  • Alstom Energy
  • Altogen Labs
  • Alumasc Group Plc
  • AMEA Power
  • Ameret Llc
  • Amvik Systems
  • Andritz Hydro
  • Ansaldo Energia
  • APG
  • Aquatech International
  • Areva
  • Argenta Banken Verzekeringsgroep nv
  • Ascent Solar Technologies, Inc
  • Atb Riva Calzoni
  • AVTECH
  • Azelio
  • Azure Power
  • B Fouress
  • Ballard Power Systems
  • Banpro, Grupo Promerica
  • BASF SE
  • Basler Kantonalbank
  • Bauder Limited
  • BayernLB
  • BBVA
  • BDR Thermea
  • Berner Kantonalbank AG BEKB
  • Bester Energy
  • BHEL
  • Binderholz GmbH
  • Bioactive Services Inc.
  • Bioremediation Consulting Inc.
  • Bioremedy Pty. Ltd.
  • Biwater
  • BlackRock
  • Boralex Inc
  • Bornay 
  • Bosch Thermotechnology
  • Boston Consulting Group
  • BrightSource Energy
  • Brookfield Renewable Partners
  • BRUKS Siwertell
  • BTG Pactual
  • Bündnis Bürgerenergie
  • Caixabank, SA
  • Campbell Scientific   
  • Canadian Solar, Inc
  • Carbon Clean Solutions
  • Cardano
  • Carrier Corporation
  • Carus Corp.
  • CDC Group
  • CertainTeed Corporation
  • China Guodian Corporation 
  • China HuaNeng Group
  • Chinese Renewable Energy
  • CIBC
  • CIMB Group Holdings Berhad
  • CKD Blansko
  • Coastal Enterprises, Inc
  • Cobra
  • Columbia Weather Systems
  • Comerica, Inc
  • Compte.R.
  • ConocoPhillips Company
  • Cooperativa Abaco
  • Coopeservidores RL
  • Couldberry Clean Energy
  • CropMetrics LLC
  • CRRC 
  • CSIC 
  • Daikin Industries Ltd.
  • Dakota Gasification
  • Deere and Company
  • Desjardins Group
  • Detroit Stoker Company
  • Dii Desert Energy
  • Dongfang Electric
  • Doosan heavy industries & construction
  • Doosan 
  • Dow
  • Drylet Llc
  • Dulas
  • Dutch Marine Energy Centre
  • du Pont de Nemours and Company
  • Eco Blue Bioremediation Canada
  • Ecology Building Society
  • ECOWAS Centre for Renewable
  • EDP Renováveis, S.A.
  • Efficiency Partnership (REEEP)
  • EG&G Inc.
  • EIG Global Energy Partners
  • EKO energy
  • Elecon Engineering 
  • Emerson
  • ENEL Green Power (EGP)
  • Enercon 
  • ENERGIA
  • Energiekontor AG
  • Energy and Energy Efficiency (RCREEE)
  • Energy Innovations (UK)
  • Energy Watch Group
  • Enessere 
  • Enlight Renewable Energy Ltd.
  • Enphase Energy
  • Envira
  • Envirogen Technologies Inc.
  • Environment Development
  • Envision Energy 
  • Enviva
  • eSolar
  • Evergreen Engineering
  • Evoqua Water Technologies
  • Falck Renewables
  • Ferrovial
  • FinDev Canada
  • Finergreen
  • First National Energy Corp
  • First Solar Holding, LLC
  • FirstRand Group Ltd
  • Fisia Italimpianti
  • Fiton Group
  • Flibe Energy
  • Flovel Energy Private Limited
  • Fluence
  • Fluor Corporation
  • FMO
  • Forbo International SA
  • FTI Consulting
  • Fuji Electric
  • Fuji Heavy Industries 
  • Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica
  • Ganz EEPM
  • Garioni Naval (Italy)
  • General Electric
  • Genesis Water Technologies
  • Geothermal Energy Nordic AS (gtml)
  • Geovation Engineering P.C.
  • GFZ Helmholtz Zentrum Potsdam
  • Gilbert Gilkes & Gordon Ltd
  • GlassPoint Solar
  • Global Hydro Energy
  • Global Solar Council (GSC)
  • Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC)
  • Gold Standard
  • Goldwind
  • Graded
  • Gradko
  • Greenera Energy India Pvt
  • Greenpeace International
  • GUGLER
  • Halliburton
  • Hangzhou Boiler (China)
  • Hanjin 
  • Hannon Armstrong
  • Hanwell Solutions
  • Hanwha Asset Management
  • HEITRONICS
  • Hitachi
  • Hi-VAWT 
  • Hivos
  • Honeywell
  • HS Orka
  • HSBC Holdings PLC
  • HTCO2 Systems
  • Hurst Boiler & Welding Co. Inc.
  • Husk Power Systems
  • Hyosung 
  • Hyundai Heavy Industries 
  • Iberdrola SA
  • ICLEI – Local Governments
  • IDE Technologies
  • Infigen Energy
  • Ingersoll-Rand PLC
  • Inox Wind  
  • Interface Inc.
  • Interra Global Corporation
  • iSun isunenergy.com
  • Ivey International Inc.
  • Japan Steel Works 
  • John King Chains USA
  • JRW Bioremediation Llc
  • Justsen Energiteknik (Denmark)
  • Kankyo Cleantech Llp
  • KBC Group
  • kiloWattsol
  • Kingspan Group plc
  • Koch Separation Solutions
  • Kohlbach Group (Austria)
  • Kolektor Turboinstitut
  • Končar 
  • Lafarge
  • Lambda Bioremediation Systems Inc.
  • LAMBION Energy Solutions (Germany)
  • Limited
  • Lekela Power
  • Lhoist UK Ltd/Tradical
  • Linde Engineering
  • Lointek
  • Longyuan Power
  • Lufft Mess-und Regeltechnik   
  • Machine Sazi Arak 
  • MagNet Hungarian Community Bank
  • Mainstream Renewable Power
  • MAKE/Wood Mackenzie
  • Makona Hardware and Industrial (Pty.) Ltd.
  • Mali Folkecenter
  • Mapna 
  • Masdar
  • Mavel
  • MENA
  • Metito
  • Microgen Biotech Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
  • MN
  • Modine
  • Moltex Energy
  • Morcom International
  • Morgan Stanley
  • Mouser Electronics
  • MS Energy Solutions Ltd
  • Mujeres en Energía Renovable
  • Münchener Verein Versicherung
  • National Fiber
  • NatWest Group
  • Neoen
  • Netherlands Wind Energy
  • Network Consulting Group
  • Network for the 21st Century (REN21)
  • New Energy Nexus
  • NIBC Holding NV
  • Nibe Industrier
  • NN Group
  • Nordex SE 
  • Nordic Folkecenter
  • Novatec
  • Novozymes
  • Ocean Energy Europe
  • Ocean Power Technologies, Inc
  • OCHSNER Warmepumpen
  • Oil Spill Eater International Corp.
  • Ontario Sustainable Energy
  • Opsis
  • Ormat Technologies Inc.
  • Owens Corning
  • PacWind 
  • Pall Corporation
  • Panasonic Corporation
  • Phanes Group
  • Phoenix Group

 

 

  • PIDG – The Private Infrastructure Development Group Ltd
  • PlanetEnergy
  • PostFinance AG
  • PPG Industries
  • Practical Action
  • Primus windpower
  • Probiosphere Inc.
  • ProcessBarron
  • Produbanco
  • PV Crystalox Solar, plc
  • QM Environmental International B.V.
  • quietrevolution 
  • Qway Energy
  • Rabobank
  • Rackam
  • Rahimafrooz Renewable
  • Raise Green, Inc
  • Raven Industries Inc.
  • RE100/The Climate Group
  • RedBuilt, LLC
  • Renovagen Ltd.
  • Revelle Group
  • REVOLVE
  • Reward Wall Systems
  • Rioglass Solar
  • Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation
  • RNAS Remediation Products
  • RNHB BV
  • Robeco
  • Robert Bosch GmbH (Bosch Thermotechnology Corporation)
  • Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI)
  • Rotronic
  • RRB Energy Limited 
  • Ryse Energy
  • SAC Apoyo Integral, SA
  • Safbon Water Technology
  • Samorka, tbc
  • SANY 
  • Sasol Limited
  • Schneider Electric
  • Schott
  • SENER
  • SER Colombia
  • Sevenson Environmental Services Inc.
  • SGS Weather
  • Shams Power
  • Shandong Sukahan Bio-Technology Co. Ltd.
  • Shanghai Electric 
  • Shell Cansolv
  • Shinhan Financial Group
  • Siemens
  • Sinovel 
  • Skye Instruments
  • Skypower
  • SMA Solar Technology
  • Smp drilling, tbc
  • SNC-Lavalin
  • Solar Euromed
  • Solar Head of State
  • SolarCoin Foundation
  • SolarEdge Technologies, Inc
  • Solarlite
  • SolarPower Europe
  • SolarReserve
  • SolarWorld AG
  • Soliterm Group
  • Sopogy Micro CSP
  • SoyutWind
  • Statoil ASA
  • Stichting Pensioenfonds Metaal en Techniek (PMT)
  • Stichting Pensioenfonds van de Metalektro (PME)
  • Stiebel Eltron
  • Structurlam Products Ltd.
  • STX Windpower
  • SUEZ
  • Summit Carbon Capture
  • Sunlabob Renewable Energy
  • SunPower Corporation
  • Sunrun
  • Sutron Corporation
  • Suzlon 
  • Syndicat des Énergies
  • Synex International
  • TCXFund
  • TECO 
  • TERI School of Advanced Studies
  • Terna Energy
  • Terra Power
  • Terrestrial Energy
  • TES Vsetín
  • Tesla, Inc.
  • Tesup 
  • The Glen Dimplex Group
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • The Weather Company   
  • ThermoFisher Scientific
  • ThorCon Power
  • Topcon Corporation
  • Torresol Energy
  • Torxx Kinetic Pulverizer
  • Toshiba
  • Trane
  • Transatomic Power Corporation
  • Trident Environmental Llc
  • Trimble, Inc.
  • Trina Solar
  • TUGE Energia 
  • TVP Solar
  • UGE International, LTD
  • UNISON 
  • Urban Green Energy 
  • Vaillant
  • Vaisala
  • Van Lanschot Kempen
  • Vancity
  • Vasudha Foundation
  • VEOLIA
  • Verde Environmental Group
  • Vergnet 
  • Vestas Wind Systems
  • Viessmann Group
  • Voith GmbH
  • VSECU
  • Vulcan Energie Ressourcen GmbH, tbc
  • WABAG
  • WaterPower Canada
  • WEG 
  • Wellons
  • Western Power
  • WETICO (Water & Environment Technologies)
  • WindForce
  • Wizard Power
  • Wolf Material Handling Systems
  • Wuxi Huaguang Boiler (China)
  • WWF-Emirates Nature WPO
  • XacBank
  • Xant 
  • Xylem (YSI)
  • Yansa Group
  • Yeager Energy B.V.
  • Yellow Door Energy
  • Zhejiang Jinlun Electromechanic
  • Zhengzhou Boiler
  • Zhuhai Wangyang Water Treatment Equipment

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Download TOC as PDF

Contents

1         The Report Key Assumptions…………………………………. 47

2         Executive Summary………………………………………………. 48

2.1        Key Findings…………………………………………………… 48

2.2        Key Conclusions………………………………………………. 61

2.3        Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market Segmentation Vectors……………………………………….. 71

2.4        Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2022-2030……………………………………………………. 72

2.4.1            Middle East & Africa Market by Technology – 2022-2030………………………………………………………… 72

2.4.2            Middle East & Africa Market by Sector – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 74

2.4.3            Middle East & Africa Market by Revenue Source – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 75

2.4.4            Middle East & Africa Market by Region – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 75

2.4.5            Middle East & Africa Market by Country – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 77

3         COP26 & COVID-19 Implications……………………………… 78

3.1        COP26 Takeaway……………………………………………. 78

3.2        COVID-19 Implications………………………………………. 79

4         The Industry Value Chain……………………………………….. 81

5         Business Opportunities…………………………………………. 82

6         Market Drivers………………………………………………………. 93

7         Market Inhibitors…………………………………………………… 94

8         SWOT Analysis…………………………………………………….. 95

8.1        Strengths……………………………………………………….. 95

8.2        Weaknesses…………………………………………………… 96

8.3        Opportunities…………………………………………………… 97

8.4        Threats………………………………………………………….. 98

TECHNOLOGY, PRODUCT & SERVICE MARKETS…………… 100

9         Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Technologies, Products & Services Markets – 2020-2030 100

9.1        Technology, Products & Services Markets Size…….. 100

9.2        Technology Products & Services Markets Dynamics. 101

9.3        Technology Products & Services Markets Share……. 103

10      Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market – 2022-2030…………… 105

10.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 105

10.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 105

10.1.2          Heat Pump Technologies……………………………. 111

10.1.3          Heat Pump Cost Performance……………………… 112

10.1.4          Legislation……………………………………………….. 113

10.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 113

10.3     Middle East & Africa Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 114

10.3.1          Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Size……………. 114

10.3.2          Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Dynamics…….. 114

10.3.3          Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Share………….. 114

11      Big Data & AI Market – 2022-2030…………………………… 115

11.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 115

11.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 115

11.1.2          Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the Middle East & Africa Warming Mitigation Industry………. 118

11.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 118

11.3     Middle East & Africa Big Data & AI Market – 2020-2030                                                                               119

11.3.1          Big Data & AI Market Size…………………………… 119

11.3.2          Big Data & AI Market Dynamics……………………. 120

11.3.3          Big Data & AI Market Share…………………………. 120

12      Bioenergy Market – 2022-2030………………………………. 121

12.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 121

12.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 121

12.1.2          Bioenergy for Electricity Generation………………. 124

12.1.3          Bioenergy in Industry…………………………………. 124

12.1.4          Thermo-Chemical Process………………………….. 125

12.1.5          Bio-Chemical Process………………………………… 126

12.1.6          Bioenergy Conversion Technologies……………… 127

12.1.7          Middle East & Africa Bioenergy Market………….. 128

12.1.8          Middle East & Africa Bio-Heating Market………… 128

12.1.9          Biomass Heating For Buildings…………………….. 129

12.1.10       Middle East & Africa Bio-Power Markets………… 130

12.1.11       The Middle East & Africa Solid Biomass Industry 131

12.1.12       The Middle East & Africa Liquid Biofuels Industry 132

12.1.13       The Middle East & Africa Gaseous Biomass Industry……………………………………………………………… 132

12.1.14       Middle East & Africa Bioenergy CCS & CCU…… 132

12.1.15       Thermal Conversions…………………………………. 134

12.1.16       Chemical Conversion…………………………………. 134

12.1.17       Biochemical Conversion……………………………… 134

12.1.18       Electrochemical Conversions……………………….. 135

12.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 135

12.3     Middle East & Africa Bioenergy Market – 2020-2030. 136

12.3.1          Bioenergy Market Size……………………………….. 136

12.3.2          Bioenergy Market Dynamics………………………… 136

12.3.3          Bioenergy Market Share……………………………… 136

13      Biological Carbon Capture & Sequestration Market – 2022-2030…………………………………………………………… 137

13.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 137

13.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 137

13.1.2          Kelp Farms Products…………………………………. 139

13.1.3          Biological Carbon Sequestration…………………… 139

13.1.4          Microalgae Carbon Biological Capture & Utilization……………………………………………………………… 139

13.1.5          Oceans Carbon Sequestration……………………… 140

13.1.6          Soil Carbon Sequestration…………………………… 140

13.1.7          Forests Carbon Sequestration……………………… 140

13.1.8          Grasslands Carbon Sequestration………………… 141

13.1.9          Impacts of Carbon Sequestration………………….. 141

13.2     Middle East & Africa Biological Carbon Capture & Sequestration Market – 2020-2030…………………….. 141

13.2.1          Biological Carbon Capture & Sequestration Market Size……………………………………………………….. 141

13.2.2          Biological Carbon Capture & Sequestration Market Dynamics………………………………………………… 142

13.2.3          Biological Carbon Capture & Sequestration Market Share……………………………………………………… 142

14      Bioremediation Market – 2022-2030……………………….. 143

14.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 143

14.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 143

14.1.2          Bioremediation Cleanup Strategy………………….. 147

14.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 150

14.3     Middle East & Africa Bioremediation Market – 2020-2030……………………………………………………………. 152

14.3.1          Bioremediation Market Size…………………………. 152

14.3.2          Bioremediation Market Dynamics………………….. 152

14.3.3          Bioremediation Market Share………………………. 152

15      Carbon Capture & Storage Market – 2022-2030………… 153

15.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 153

15.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 153

15.1.2          Geological Carbon Sequestration…………………. 155

15.1.3          Technological Carbon Sequestration……………… 155

15.1.4          Graphene Production…………………………………. 155

15.1.5          Direct Air Capture (DAC)…………………………….. 155

15.1.6          Engineered Molecules………………………………… 155

15.1.7          CCS, DOE Investments………………………………. 156

15.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 157

15.3     Middle East & Africa Carbon Capture & Storage Market – 2020-2030………………………………………………….. 158

15.3.1          Carbon Capture & Storage Market Size…………. 158

15.3.2          Carbon Capture & Storage Market Dynamics….. 158

15.3.3          Carbon Capture & Storage Market Share……….. 159

16      Carbon Capture & Utilization Market – 2022-2030…….. 160

16.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 160

16.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 160

16.1.2          CCU Proliferation………………………………………. 162

16.1.3          Carbon Capture and Utilization Applications……. 163

16.1.4          Algae Cultivation……………………………………….. 164

16.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 166

16.3     Middle East & Africa Carbon Capture & Utilization Market – 2020-2030………………………………………… 167

16.3.1          Carbon Capture & Utilization Market Size……….. 167

16.3.2          Carbon Capture & Utilization Market Dynamics… 167

16.3.3          Carbon Capture & Utilization Market Share…….. 167

17      Climate Adapted Agriculture Market – 2022-2030……… 168

17.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 168

17.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 168

17.2     Agriculture GHG Emission………………………………… 172

17.3     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 174

18.1     Middle East & Africa Climate Adapted Agriculture Market – 2020-2030………………………………………………….. 175

18.1.1          Climate Adapted Agriculture Market Size……….. 175

18.1.2          Climate Adapted Agriculture Market Dynamics… 175

18.1.3          Climate Adapted Agriculture Market Share……… 175

19      Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure Market – 2022-2030 176

19.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 176

19.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 176

19.1.2          Digital Technologies…………………………………… 184

19.1.3          Water Management Strategy……………………….. 185

19.1.4          Agriculture Water Management……………………. 189

19.1.5          Urban Water Management………………………….. 190

19.1.6          Urban Decision Support System…………………… 191

19.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 191

19.3     Middle East & Africa Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure Market – 2020-2030……………………… 193

19.3.1          Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure Market Size……………………………………………………………… 193

19.3.2          Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure Market Dynamics………………………………………………… 193

19.3.3          Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure Market Share……………………………………………………………… 194

20      Compressed-Air Storage Market – 2022-2030………….. 196

20.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 196

20.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 196

20.1.2          Adiabatic Compressed-Air Energy Storage……… 198

20.1.3          Diabatic Compressed-Air Energy Storage………. 198

20.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 199

20.3     Middle East & Africa Compressed-Air Storage Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 199

20.3.1          Compressed-Air Storage Market Size……………. 199

20.3.2          Compressed-Air Storage Market Dynamics…….. 200

20.3.3          Compressed-Air Storage Market Share………….. 200

21      Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market – 2022-2030. 201

21.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 201

21.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 201

21.1.2          CSP Projects……………………………………………. 203

21.1.3          CSP vs. Solar PV……………………………………… 204

21.2     CSP Key Vendors…………………………………………… 204

21.3     Middle East & Africa Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market – 2020-2030………………………………………… 205

21.3.1          Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Size… 205

21.3.2          Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Dynamics……………………………………………………………… 206

21.3.3          Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Share. 206

22      Cybersecurity Market – 2022-2030…………………………. 207

22.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 207

22.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 207

22.1.2          Cybersecurity in the Middle East & Africa Warming Mitigation Industry…………………………………….. 209

22.1.3          Cybercrime in the Electric Power Industry………. 209

22.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 210

22.3     Middle East & Africa Cybersecurity Market – 2020-2030                                                                               211

22.3.1          Cybersecurity Market Size…………………………… 211

22.3.2          Cybersecurity Market Dynamics…………………… 211

22.3.3          Cybersecurity Market Share………………………… 211

23      Desalination Plants Market – 2022-2030………………….. 212

23.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 212

23.2     Technologies…………………………………………………. 216

23.2.1          Solar Distillation………………………………………… 217

23.2.2          Natural Evaporation…………………………………… 217

23.2.3          Vacuum Distillation……………………………………. 217

23.2.4          Multi-Stage Flash Distillation……………………….. 217

23.2.5          Multiple-Effect Distillation……………………………. 217

23.2.6          Vapor-Compression Distillation…………………….. 218

23.2.7          Wave-Powered Desalination……………………….. 218

23.2.8          Membrane Distillation………………………………… 218

23.2.9          Reverse Osmosis……………………………………… 218

23.2.10       Forward Osmosis……………………………………… 219

23.2.11       Freeze–Thaw…………………………………………… 219

23.2.12       Electrodialysis Membrane…………………………… 220

23.2.13       Technical Challenges…………………………………. 220

23.3     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 221

23.4     Middle East & Africa Desalination Plants Market – 2020-2030……………………………………………………………. 222

23.4.1          Desalination Plants Market Size…………………… 222

23.4.2          Desalination Plants Market Dynamics……………. 223

23.4.3          Desalination Plants Market Share…………………. 223

24      Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market – 2022-2030 224

24.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 224

24.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 224

24.1.2          Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Applications……………………………………………………………… 225

24.1.3          Geothermal Heat Pumps. Heating and Cooling… 225

24.1.4          Geothermal District Heating…………………………. 226

24.1.5          Geothermal Heating Pump Price Competitiveness……………………………………………………………… 227

24.2     Middle East & Africa Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market – 2020-2030……………………………… 228

24.2.1          Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Size……………………………………………………………… 228

24.2.2          Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Dynamics………………………………………………… 229

24.2.3          Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Share……………………………………………………………… 229

25      Direct Solar Water Heating Market – 2022-2030………… 230

25.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 230

25.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 230

25.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 234

25.3     Middle East & Africa Direct Solar Water Heating Market – 2020-2030………………………………………………….. 234

25.3.1          Direct Solar Water Heating Market Size…………. 234

25.3.2          Direct Solar Water Heating Market Dynamics….. 236

25.3.3          Direct Solar Water Heating Market Share……….. 236

26      Electric Buses Market – 2022-2030…………………………. 237

26.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 237

26.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 237

26.1.2          E-Bus Economy………………………………………… 239

26.1.3          COVID-19 Effects……………………………………… 241

26.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 241

26.4     Middle East & Africa Electric Buses Market – 2020-2030                                                                               242

26.4.1          Electric Buses Market Size………………………….. 242

26.4.2          Electric Buses Market Dynamics…………………… 242

26.4.3          Electric Buses Market Share……………………….. 242

27      Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market – 2022-2030………………………………………………. 243

27.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 243

27.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 243

27.1.2          Example 1. Thermoelectric Effect…………………. 246

27.1.3          Example 2: Reciprocating Compressors…………. 247

27.1.4          Example 3: Energy Efficient HVAC Ducts……….. 248

27.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 249

27.3     Middle East & Africa Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market – 2020-2030……………… 249

27.3.1          Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Size…………………………………….. 249

27.3.2          Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Dynamics……………………………… 249

27.3.3          Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Share………………………………….. 250

28      Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market – 2022-2030…………………………………………………………… 251

28.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 251

28.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 251

28.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 255

28.3     Middle East & Africa Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market – 2020-2030………………………….. 255

28.3.1          Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Size……………………………………………… 255

28.3.2          Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Dynamics………………………………………. 256

28.3.3          Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Share……………………………………………. 256

29      EV Charging Systems Market – 2022-2030………………. 257

29.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 257

29.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 257

29.1.2          Light-Duty Vehicle Chargers………………………… 260

29.1.3          Private Home And Workplace Chargers…………. 261

29.1.4          Charging Heavy-Duty Electric Trucks…………….. 262

29.1.5          Mega-High Power Charging Standarts…………… 262

29.1.6          EVs and Energy Storage…………………………….. 263

29.1.7          Wireless Charging…………………………………….. 264

29.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 265

29.3     Middle East & Africa EV Charging Systems Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 265

29.3.1          EV Charging Systems Market Size……………….. 265

29.3.2          EV Charging Systems Market Dynamics………… 266

29.3.3          EV Charging Systems Market Share……………… 266

30      Extreme Weather Public Warning Systems Market – 2022-2030…………………………………………………………………… 267

30.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 267

30.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 267

30.1.2          Cell Baed Broadcast………………………………….. 271

30.1.3          Location Based Alert SMS…………………………… 273

30.2     Middle East & Africa Extreme Weather Public Warning Systems Market – 2020-2030……………………………. 275

30.2.1          Extreme Weather Public Warning Systems Market Size……………………………………………………….. 275

30.2.2          Extreme Weather Public Warning Systems Market Dynamics………………………………………………… 276

30.2.3          Extreme Weather Public Warning Systems Market Share……………………………………………………… 276

31      Flood Control Market – 2022-2030………………………….. 277

31.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 277

31.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 277

31.1.2          Structural Forms of Mitigation………………………. 280

31.1.3          Nonstructural Measures……………………………… 281

31.1.4          Floodwater Diversion and Storage………………… 281

31.1.5          Floodplain and Stream Restoration……………….. 281

31.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 281

31.3     Middle East & Africa Floods Control Market – 2020-2030                                                                               282

31.3.1          Floods Control Market Size…………………………. 282

31.3.2          Floods Control Market Dynamics………………….. 283

31.3.3          Floods Control Market Share……………………….. 283

32      Freight BEVs Market – 2022-2030…………………………… 284

32.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 284

32.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 284

32.1.2          COVID-19 Effects……………………………………… 285

32.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 286

32.3     Middle East & Africa Freight BEVs Market – 2020-2030                                                                               286

32.3.1          Freight BEVs Market Size…………………………… 286

32.3.2          Freight BEVs Market Dynamics……………………. 287

32.3.3          Freight BEVs Market Share…………………………. 287

33      GHG Emission Tracking Market – 2022-2030…………… 288

33.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 288

33.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 288

33.1.2          Methane Emission Tracking Technologies………. 292

33.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 294

33.3     Middle East & Africa GHG Emission Tracking Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 294

33.3.1          GHG Emission Tracking Market Size…………….. 294

33.3.2          GHG Emission Tracking Market Dynamics……… 295

33.3.3          GHG Emission Tracking Market Share…………… 295

34      Geothermal Power Generation Market – 2022-2030…… 296

34.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 296

34.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 296

34.1.2          Geothermal Electric Power Generation………….. 298

34.1.3          Geothermal Power Plants LCOE…………………… 299

34.1.4          Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)………….. 299

34.1.5          The 2022-2030 Market Growth Drivers…………… 301

34.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 302

34.3     Middle East & Africa Geothermal Power Generation Market – 2020-2030………………………………………… 303

34.3.1          Geothermal Power Generation Market Size…….. 303

34.3.2          Geothermal Power Generation Market Dynamics 303

34.3.3          Geothermal Power Generation Market Share….. 304

35      Green Cement Market – 2022-2030…………………………. 305

35.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 305

35.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 305

35.1.2          Cement Decarbonization Options…………………. 309

35.1.3          Cement Negative Emission Technologies……….. 309

35.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 311

35.3     Middle East & Africa Green Cement Market – 2020-2030                                                                               311

35.3.1          Green Cement Market Size…………………………. 311

35.3.2          Green Cement Market Dynamics………………….. 311

35.3.3          Green Cement Market Share……………………….. 312

36      Green Hydrogen Production Market – 2022-2030……… 313

36.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 313

36.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 313

36.1.2          Green Hydrogen……………………………………….. 317

36.1.3          The European Hydrogen  Market………………….. 318

36.1.4          The Asia-Pacific Hydrogen Market………………… 318

36.2     A Net-Zero“Hydrogen Economy” by 2050 Scenario… 319

36.3     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 320

36.4     Middle East & Africa Green Hydrogen Production Market – 2020-2030………………………………………………….. 321

36.4.1          Green Hydrogen Production Market Size……….. 321

36.4.2          Green Hydrogen Production Market Dynamics… 321

36.4.3          Green Hydrogen Production Market Share……… 321

37      Green Steel Market – 2022-2030…………………………….. 322

37.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 322

37.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 322

37.1.2          CHG Emissions & Decarbonized (Green) Steel.. 324

37.2     Middle East & Africa Green Steel Market – 2020-2030                                                                               325

37.2.1          Green Steel Market Size…………………………….. 325

37.2.2          Green Steel Market Dynamics……………………… 326

37.2.3          Green Steel Market Share…………………………… 326

38      Grid Modernization Market – 2022-2030………………….. 327

38.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 327

38.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 327

38.1.2          Smart Grid………………………………………………. 329

38.1.3          Transmission Lines Modernization………………… 330

38.1.4          Demand Response……………………………………. 331

38.1.5          Hardening the Grid……………………………………. 331

38.1.6          Advanced Distribution Management Systems….. 332

38.1.7          Smart Inverters…………………………………………. 332

38.1.8          Smart Meters……………………………………………. 332

38.1.9          Microgrids……………………………………………….. 332

38.2     Middle East & Africa Grid Modernization Market – 2020-2030……………………………………………………………. 334

38.2.1          Grid Modernization Market Size……………………. 334

38.2.2          Grid Modernization Market Dynamics…………….. 335

38.2.3          Grid Modernization Market Share…………………. 335

39      Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market – 2022-2030……….. 336

39.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 336

39.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 336

39.1.2          The U.S.  Energy Storage Market…………………. 339

39.1.3          Grid-Scale Battery Storage Benefits………………. 339

39.1.4          EVs and Energy Storage…………………………….. 340

39.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 342

39.3     Middle East & Africa Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market – 2020-2030………………………………………………….. 342

39.3.1          Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market Size…………. 342

39.3.2          Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market Dynamics….. 343

39.3.3          Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market Share……….. 343

40      Hydroelectric Energy Storage Market – 2022-2030……. 344

40.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 344

40.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 344

40.1.2          Facts & Figures………………………………………… 347

40.1.3          Pumped Hydroelectric Storage Technologies….. 347

40.1.4          Variable-Speed Pump-Storage Technology…….. 348

40.1.5          Key Vendors……………………………………………. 348

40.2     Middle East & Africa Hydroelectric Energy Storage Market – 2020-2030………………………………………… 349

40.2.1          Hydroelectric Energy Storage Market Size……… 349

40.2.2          Hydroelectric Energy Storage Market Dynamics. 350

40.2.3          Hydroelectric Energy Storage Market Share……. 350

41      Hydroelectric Power Market – 2022-2030………………… 351

41.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 351

41.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 351

41.1.2          Hydropower LCOE…………………………………….. 354

41.1.3          Hydropower Technology…………………………….. 354

41.1.4          Hydroelectric Power Project Construction Cost… 355

41.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 356

41.3     Middle East & Africa Hydroelectric Power Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 356

41.3.1          Hydroelectric Power Market Size………………….. 356

41.3.2          Hydroelectric Power Market Dynamics…………… 356

41.3.3          Hydroelectric Power Market Share………………… 357

42      Hydrogen Vehicles Market – 2022-2030…………………… 358

42.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 358

42.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 358

42.1.2          Fuel Cell Passenger Vehicles………………………. 364

42.1.3          Fuel-cell Buses…………………………………………. 364

42.1.4          Fuel-cell Trams and Trains………………………….. 364

42.1.5          Hydrogen Vehicles Advantages……………………. 365

42.1.6          Hydrogen Vehicles Disadvantages………………… 365

42.1.7          Hydrogen Storage…………………………………….. 365

42.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 366

42.3     Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Vehicles Market – 2020-2030……………………………………………………………. 366

42.3.1          Hydrogen Vehicles Market Size……………………. 366

42.3.2          Hydrogen Vehicles Market Dynamics…………….. 367

42.3.3          Hydrogen Vehicles Market Share………………….. 367

43      Hydrogen Electrolyzers Market – 2022-2030……………. 368

43.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 368

43.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 368

43.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 373

43.3     Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Electrolyzers Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 373

43.3.1          Hydrogen Electrolyzers Market Size………………. 373

43.3.2          Hydrogen Electrolyzers Market Dynamics………. 373

43.3.3          Hydrogen Electrolyzers Market Share……………. 374

44      Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Market – 2022-2030… 375

44.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 375

44.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 375

44.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 379

44.3     Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Market – 2020-2030………………………………………… 379

44.3.1          Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Market Size…… 379

44.3.2          Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Market Dynamics……………………………………………………………… 379

44.3.3          Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Market Share…. 380

45      ICT (w/o Cyber, AI, Big Data) Market – 2022-2030……… 381

45.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 381

45.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 381

45.1.2          Distributed Energy Resources ICT………………… 382

45.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 382

45.3     Middle East & Africa ICT (w/o Cyber, AI, Big Data) Market – 2020-2030………………………………………… 383

45.3.1          ICT (w/o Cyber, AI, Big Data) Market Size………. 383

45.3.2          ICT (w/o Cyber, AI, Big Data) Market Dynamics.. 384

45.3.3          ICT (w/o Cyber, AI, Big Data) Market Share……. 384

46      Low Carbon Fuels Manufacturing Plants Market – 2022-2030…………………………………………………………………… 385

46.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 385

46.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 385

46.2     Middle East & Africa Low Carbon Fuels Manufacturing Plants Market – 2020-2030……………………………….. 391

46.2.1          Low Carbon Fuels Manufacturing Plants Market Size……………………………………………………………… 391

46.2.2          Low Carbon Fuels Manufacturing Plants Market Dynamics………………………………………………… 392

46.2.3          Low Carbon Fuels Manufacturing Plants Market Share……………………………………………………… 392

47      Marine Power Systems Market – 2022-2030…………….. 393

47.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 393

47.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 393

47.1.2          Marine Tidal Power technologies………………….. 394

47.1.3          Marine Current Power Generation………………… 395

47.1.4          Marine Osmotic Power Generation……………….. 395

47.1.5          Ocean Thermal Energy………………………………. 396

47.1.6          Marine Wave Power…………………………………… 396

47.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 397

47.3     Middle East & Africa Marine Power Market – 2020-2030                                                                               398

47.3.1          Marine Power Market Size………………………….. 398

47.3.2          Marine Power Market Dynamics…………………… 398

47.3.3          Marine Power Market Share………………………… 399

48      Methane Abatement Market – 2022-2030…………………. 400

48.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 400

48.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 400

48.1.2          Methane Sources……………………………………… 402

48.1.3          COP26 Methane Pledge…………………………….. 403

48.1.4          Methane Mitigation……………………………………. 403

48.1.5          GHG Abatement Cost Forcast – 2030…………….. 405

48.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 406

48.3     Middle East & Africa Methane Abatement Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 408

48.3.1          Methane Abatement Market Size………………….. 408

48.3.2          Methane Abatement Market Dynamics…………… 409

48.3.3          Methane Abatement Market Share……………….. 409

49      Nuclear Energy Plants (> 1 GW) Market – 2022-2030…. 410

49.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 410

49.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 410

49.1.2          Facts and Figures……………………………………… 411

49.1.3          Installed Base of Power Reactors – 2021………… 412

49.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 412

49.3     Middle East & Africa Nuclear Energy Plants > 1 GW Market – 2020-2030………………………………………… 413

49.3.1          Nuclear Energy Plants > 1 GW Market Size……. 413

49.3.2          Nuclear Energy Plants > 1 GW Market Dynamics 413

49.3.3          Nuclear Energy Plants > 1 GW Market Share….. 414

50      Offshore Wind Power Market – 2022-2030……………….. 415

50.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 415

50.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 415

50.1.2          Floating offshore wind power market……………… 420

50.1.3          The Proliferation of Offshore Wind Power Farms by Geography………………………………………………. 421

50.1.4          Operational Cost……………………………………….. 422

50.1.5          Cost trends……………………………………………… 422

50.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 423

50.3     Middle East & Africa Offshore Wind Power Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 423

50.3.1          Offshore Wind Power Market Size………………… 423

50.3.2          Offshore Wind Power Market Dynamics…………. 424

50.3.3          Offshore Wind Power Market Share………………. 424

51      Onshore Wind Power Market – 2022-2030……………….. 425

51.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 425

51.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 425

51.1.2          Onshore Wind LCOE Outlook………………………. 427

51.1.3          Onshore Wind Power Disadvantages…………….. 427

51.1.4          Key Vendors……………………………………………. 427

51.2     Middle East & Africa Onshore Wind Power Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 429

51.2.1          Onshore Wind Power Market Size………………… 429

51.2.2          Onshore Wind Power Market Dynamics…………. 429

51.2.3          Onshore Wind Power Market Share………………. 430

52      Other BEVs Market – 2022-2030…………………………….. 431

52.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 431

52.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 431

52.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 437

52.3     Middle East & Africa Other BEVs Market – 2020-2030                                                                               439

52.3.1          Other BEVs Market Size…………………………….. 439

52.3.2          Other BEVs Market Dynamics……………………… 440

52.3.3          Other BEVs Market Share…………………………… 440

53      Other Energy Storage Modalities Market – 2022-2030.. 441

53.1     Middle East & Africa Other Energy Storage Modalities Market – 2020-2030………………………………………… 441

53.1.1          Other Energy Storage Modalities Market Size….. 441

53.1.2          Other Energy Storage Modalities Market Dynamics……………………………………………………………… 441

53.1.3          Other Energy Storage Modalities Market Share.. 442

54      Other Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Markets – 2022-2030…………………………………………….. 443

54.1     Other Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Markets – 2020-2030………………………………………. 443

54.1.1          Other Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Markets Size………………………………. 443

54.1.2          Other Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Markets Dynamics……………………….. 444

54.1.3          Other Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Markets Share…………………………….. 444

55      Other Renewable Energy Market – 2022-2030………….. 445

55.1     Middle East & Africa Other Renewable Energy Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 445

55.1.1          Other Renewable Energy Market Size……………. 445

55.1.2          Other Renewable Energy Market Dynamics……. 445

55.1.3          Other Renewable Energy Market Share…………. 446

56      Passenger BEV Cars Market – 2022-2030………………… 447

56.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 447

56.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 447

56.1.2          Electric Cars vs. ICE Car Materials……………….. 455

56.1.3          Phasing Out Of Passenger ICE Cars…………….. 456

56.1.4          COVID-19 Effects……………………………………… 456

56.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 457

56.3     Middle East & Africa Passenger BEV Cars Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 458

56.3.1          Passenger BEV Cars Market Size………………… 458

56.3.2          Passenger BEV Cars Market Dynamics…………. 459

56.3.3          Passenger BEV Cars Market Share………………. 459

57      Passive Green Buildings Market – 2022-2030………….. 460

57.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 460

57.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 460

57.1.2          Buildings GHG Emission & Energy Consumption 463

57.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 464

57.3     Middle East & Africa Passive Green Buildings Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 465

57.3.1          Passive Green Buildings Market Size…………….. 465

57.3.2          Passive Green Buildings Market Dynamics…….. 465

57.3.3          Passive Green Buildings Market Share………….. 465

58      Precision Agriculture Market – 2022-2030……………….. 466

58.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 466

58.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 466

58.2     Precision Agriculture Challenges……………………….. 469

58.3     Precision Agriculture Technologies…………………….. 470

58.3.1          Remote Sensing……………………………………….. 471

58.3.2          Genetic Engineering………………………………….. 471

58.3.3          Agricultural Robots……………………………………. 471

58.3.4          Drones……………………………………………………. 471

58.3.5          Vertical Cultivating…………………………………….. 472

58.3.6          Data……………………………………………………….. 472

58.3.7          Connected Water………………………………………. 472

58.3.8          Electric Fish…………………………………………….. 472

58.3.9          Connected Cows………………………………………. 472

58.3.10       Farm Management Systems………………………… 473

58.4     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 473

58.5     Middle East & Africa Precision Agriculture Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 473

58.5.1          Precision Agriculture Market Size…………………. 473

58.5.2          Precision Agriculture Market Dynamics………….. 473

58.5.3          Precision Agriculture Market Share……………….. 474

59      Precision Irrigation Market – 2022-2030………………….. 475

59.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 475

59.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 475

59.1.2          Drip Irrigation……………………………………………. 475

59.1.3          Variable Rate Irrigation………………………………. 476

59.1.4          GPS Technology………………………………………. 476

59.1.5          Monitoring and Automation………………………….. 477

59.1.6          Challenges & Opportunities…………………………. 477

59.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 478

59.3     Middle East & Africa Precision Irrigation Market – 2020-2030……………………………………………………………. 478

59.3.1          Precision Irrigation Market Size……………………. 478

59.3.2          Precision Irrigation Market Dynamics…………….. 479

59.3.3          Precision Irrigation Market Share………………….. 479

60      Reforestation Market – 2022-2030………………………….. 480

60.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 480

60.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 480

60.1.2          Reforestation Management…………………………. 484

60.1.3          Reforestation for Climate Change Mitigation……. 485

60.1.4          Reforestation Strategies……………………………… 485

60.1.5          Empress Trees…………………………………………. 486

60.1.6          Finanancing Deforestation…………………………… 487

60.1.7          Megacities Forestation……………………………….. 487

60.1.8          Example: China Reforestation……………………… 488

60.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 488

60.3     Middle East & Africa Reforestation Market – 2020-2030                                                                               490

60.3.1          Reforestation Market Size…………………………… 490

60.3.2          Reforestation Market Dynamics……………………. 491

60.3.3          Reforestation Market Share…………………………. 491

61      Regenerative Agriculture Market – 2022-2030………….. 492

61.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 492

61.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 492

61.2     Middle East & Africa Regenerative Agriculture Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 495

61.2.1          Regenerative Agriculture Market Size……………. 495

61.2.2          Regenerative Agriculture Market Dynamics…….. 496

61.2.3          Regenerative Agriculture Market Share………….. 496

62      Rooftop Solar PV Market – 2022-2030…………………….. 497

62.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 497

62.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 497

62.1.2          Solar Rooftop Technology…………………………… 498

62.1.3          Solar Rooftop System Economics……………….. 499

62.1.4          Adoption Of Rooftop PV……………………………. 499

62.2     Middle East & Africa Rooftop Solar PV Market – 2020-2030……………………………………………………………. 499

62.2.1          Rooftop Solar PV Market Size……………………… 499

62.2.2          Rooftop Solar PV Market Dynamics………………. 500

62.2.3          Rooftop Solar PV Market Share……………………. 500

63      Small Nuclear Reactors Market – 2022-2030……………. 501

63.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 501

63.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 501

63.1.2          Advantages of SMRs…………………………………. 502

63.1.3          SMR Challenges……………………………………….. 503

63.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 503

63.3     Middle East & Africa Small Nuclear Reactors Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 504

63.3.1          Small Nuclear Reactors Market Size……………… 504

63.3.2          Small Nuclear Reactors Market Dynamics………. 504

63.3.3          Small Nuclear Reactors Market Share……………. 505

64      Solar PV (Utility Scale) Market – 2022-2030……………… 506

64.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 506

64.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 506

64.1.2          Market Outlook…………………………………………. 510

64.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 511

64.3     Middle East & Africa Solar PV (Utility Scale) Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 512

64.3.1          Solar PV (Utility Scale) Market Size………………. 512

64.3.2          Solar PV (Utility Scale) Market Dynamics……….. 513

64.3.3          Solar PV (Utility Scale) Market Share…………….. 513

65      Thermal Energy Storage Market – 2022-2030…………… 514

65.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 514

65.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 514

65.1.2          Thermal Energy Storage  Advantages……………. 517

65.1.3          Molten Salt Storage Technology…………………… 518

65.1.4          Key Vendors……………………………………………. 518

65.2     Middle East & Africa Thermal Energy Storage Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 519

65.2.1          Thermal Energy Storage Market Size…………….. 519

65.2.2          Thermal Energy Storage Market Dynamics…….. 519

65.2.3          Thermal Energy Storage Market Share………….. 520

66      Two & Three-Wheeler BEVs Market – 2022-2030………. 521

66.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 521

66.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 521

66.2     Middle East & Africa Two & Three-Wheeler BEVs Market – 2020-2030………………………………………… 522

66.2.1          Two & Three-Wheeler BEVs Market Size……….. 522

66.2.2          Two & Three-Wheeler BEVs Market Dynamics… 523

66.2.3          Two & Three-Wheeler BEVs Market Share……… 523

67      Waste to Energy Plants Market – 2022-2030…………….. 524

67.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 524

67.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 524

67.1.2          Facts & Figures………………………………………… 525

67.1.3          Waste to Energy Economy………………………….. 526

67.2     Middle East & Africa Waste to Energy Plants Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………….. 527

67.2.1          Waste to Energy Plants Market Size……………… 527

67.2.2          Waste to Energy Plants Market Dynamics………. 527

67.2.3          Waste to Energy Plants Market Share……………. 528

68      Water Redeemable (Water Reclamation) Systems Market – 2022-2030………………………………………………………… 529

68.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 529

68.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 529

68.1.2          Sewage Treatment Plants…………………………… 532

68.1.3          Example: Water Reclamation in  China………….. 533

68.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 534

68.3     Middle East & Africa Water Redeemable Systems Market – 2020-2030………………………………………… 535

68.3.1          Water Redeemable Systems Market Size……….. 535

68.3.2          Water Redeemable Systems Market Dynamics.. 535

68.3.3          Water Redeemable Systems Market Share…….. 536

69      Weather Monitoring, Modeling & Forecasting Market – 2022-2030…………………………………………………………… 537

69.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 537

69.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 537

69.1.2          AI and Machine Learning To Predict Weather Events……………………………………………………. 538

69.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 540

69.3     Middle East & Africa Weather Monitoring, Modeling & Forecasting Market – 2020-2030……………………….. 540

69.3.1          Weather Monitoring, Modeling & Forecasting Market Size……………………………………………………….. 540

69.3.2          Weather Monitoring, Modeling & Forecasting Market Dynamics………………………………………………… 541

69.3.3          Weather Monitoring, Modeling & Forecasting Market Share……………………………………………………… 541

70      Wildfire Mitigation Market – 2022-2030……………………. 542

70.1     CEO Takeaway……………………………………………… 542

70.1.1          Summary………………………………………………… 542

70.1.2          Carbon Emissions…………………………………….. 543

70.2     Key Vendors………………………………………………….. 544

70.3     Middle East & Africa Wildfire Mitigation Market – 2020-2030……………………………………………………………. 545

70.3.1          Wildfire Mitigation Market Size……………………… 545

70.3.2          Wildfire Mitigation Market Dynamics………………. 545

70.3.3          Wildfire Mitigation Market Share…………………… 545

MARKET BY SECTOR…………………………………………………. 546

71      Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptation Market by Sector – 2022-2030………………………………………………. 546

71.1     Sectors’ Structure…………………………………………… 546

71.2     Market Size…………………………………………………… 548

71.3     Market Share…………………………………………………. 551

REVENUE SOURCE MARKETS…………………………………….. 552

72      Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………………………. 552

72.1     Middle East & Africa Market – 2020-2030…………….. 552

72.2     Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market Dynamics – 2020-2030……………………………………. 553

72.3     Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market Share – 2020-2030…………………………………………. 554

NATIONAL MARKETS…………………………………………………. 555

73      Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market by Country – 2020-2030………………………………………… 555

73.1     Energy Consumption Indicatiors………………………… 555

73.2     National Markets Size – 2020-2030…………………….. 559

73.3     National Markets Dynamics – 2020-2030…………….. 560

73.4     National Markets Shares – 2020-2030………………… 562

73.5     National Markets by Revenue Source – 2020-2030… 565

73.5.1          Infrastructure Markets………………………………… 565

73.5.2          Product Sales…………………………………………… 567

73.5.3          Maintenance Markets…………………………………. 568

73.5.4          Upgrades Markets…………………………………….. 570

73.5.5          Other* Revenue Sources……………………………. 572

74      Algeria Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030 574

74.1     Algeria Market CEO Takeaway………………………….. 574

74.2     Algeria Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030                                                                               574

74.3     Algeria Market Dynamics – 2020-2030………………… 575

74.4     Algeria Market Share – 2020-2030……………………… 575

75      Egypt Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030.. 576

75.1     Egypt Market CEO Takeaway……………………………. 576

75.2     Egypt Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030                                                                               577

75.3     Egypt Market Dynamics – 2020-2030………………….. 577

75.4     Egypt Market Share – 2020-2030………………………. 577

76      Iran Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030….. 579

76.1     Iran Market CEO Takeaway………………………………. 579

76.2     Iran Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030. 580

76.3     Iran Market Dynamics – 2020-2030…………………….. 580

76.4     Iran Market Share – 2020-2030…………………………. 580

77      Israel Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030.. 581

77.1     Israel Market CEO Takeaway……………………………. 581

77.2     Israel Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030                                                                               583

77.3     Israel Market Dynamics – 2020-2030………………….. 583

77.4     Israel Market Share – 2020-2030……………………….. 583

78      Kuwait Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030 584

78.1     Kuwait Market CEO Takeaway………………………….. 584

78.2     Kuwait Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030                                                                               585

78.3     Kuwait Market Dynamics – 2020-2030………………… 585

78.4     Kuwait Market Share – 2020-2030……………………… 585

79      Saudi Arabia Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………………………… 586

79.1     Saudi Arabia Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030……………………………………………………………. 587

79.2     Saudi Arabia Market Dynamics – 2020-2030………… 587

79.3     Saudi Arabia Market Share – 2020-2030……………… 587

80      South Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………………………… 589

80.1     South Africa Market CEO Takeaway…………………… 589

80.2     South Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030……………………………………………………………. 590

80.3     South Africa Market Dynamics – 2020-2030…………. 590

80.4     South Africa Market Share – 2020-2030………………. 590

81      Turkey Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030 592

81.1     Turkey Market CEO Takeaway………………………….. 592

81.2     Turkey Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030                                                                               594

81.3     Turkey Market Dynamics – 2020-2030………………… 594

81.4     Turkey Market Share – 2020-2030……………………… 594

82      UAE Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030…. 595

82.1     UAE Market CEO Takeaway…………………………….. 595

82.2     UAE Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030 596

82.3     UAE Market Dynamics – 2020-2030…………………… 596

82.4     UAE Market Share – 2020-2030………………………… 596

83      Rest of MEA Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030…………………………………………………………………… 597

83.1     Rest of MEA Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market – 2020-2030…………………………… 597

83.2     Rest of MEA Market Dynamics – 2020-2030…………. 597

83.3     Rest of MEA Market Share – 2020-2030……………… 597

APPENDICES…………………………………………………………….. 598

84      Appendix A: Glossary………………………………………….. 598

85      Appendix B: Abbreviations…………………………………… 624

86      Research Methodology………………………………………… 629

86.1     Report Structure…………………………………………….. 629

86.2     Methodology………………………………………………….. 629

86.3     For Whom is this Report?…………………………………. 630

87      Disclaimer and Copyright……………………………………… 631

 

Tables

Table 1 – Electricity Production by Country – 2020……………………….. 58

Table 2 – Energy & Electricity and Per Capita Consumption by Country / Region……………………………………………………………… 59

Table 3 – Renewable vs. Fossil Fuels Heating Efficiency Cost [$ Cent / KWh] – 2020 & 2030 F…………………………………………. 67

Table 4 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market by Technology [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………… 72

Table 5 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market by Sector [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………. 74

Table 6 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market by Revenue [$B] – 2020-2030……………………………………. 75

Table 7 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market by Region [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………… 75

Table 8 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market by Country [$B] – 2020-2030…………………………………….. 77

Table 9 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Technology Products & Services [$B] Markets – 2022-2030……….. 100

Table 10 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Markets Annual Growth Rates [%] – 2022-2030…………………… 101

Table 11 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Products & Services Markets Shares [%] – 2022-2030……………… 103

Table 12 – Middle East & Africa Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 114

Table 13 – Middle East & Africa Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 114

Table 14 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Share [%] – 2022-2030… 114

Table 15 – Middle East & Africa Big Data & AI Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 119

Table 16 – Middle East & Africa Big Data & AI Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 120

Table 17 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Big Data & AI Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………… 120

Table 18 – Energy Production from Solid Biofuels and Renewable Waste (MW) by Ten Leading Countries………………….. 123

Table 19 – Middle East & Africa Bioenergy Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 136

Table 20 – Middle East & Africa Bioenergy Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 136

Table 21 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Bioenergy Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………….. 136

Table 22 – Middle East & Africa Biological Carbon Capture & Sequestration Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………. 141

Table 23 – Middle East & Africa Biological Carbon Capture & Sequestration Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……… 142

Table 24 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Biological Carbon Capture & Sequestration Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 142

Table 25 – Middle East & Africa Bioremediation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 152

Table 26 – Middle East & Africa Bioremediation Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 152

Table 27 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Bioremediation Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…………. 152

Table 28 – Middle East & Africa Carbon Capture & Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 158

Table 29 – Middle East & Africa Carbon Capture & Storage Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 158

Table 30 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Carbon Capture & Storage Market Share [%] – 2022-2030                                                                                  159

Table 31 – Middle East & Africa Carbon Capture & Utilization Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 167

Table 32 – Middle East & Africa Carbon Capture & Utilization Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 167

Table 33 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Carbon Capture & Utilization Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 167

Table 34 – Middle East & Africa Climate Adapted Agriculture Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 175

Table 35 – Middle East & Africa Climate Adapted Agriculture Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 175

Table 36 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Climate Adapted Agriculture Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 175

Table 37 – Middle East & Africa Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 193

Table 38 – Middle East & Africa Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………… 193

Table 39 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 194

Table 40 – Middle East & Africa Compressed-Air Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 199

Table 41 – Middle East & Africa Compressed-Air Storage Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 200

Table 42 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Compressed-Air Storage Market Share [%] – 2022-2030                                                                                  200

Table 43 – Middle East & Africa Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 205

Table 44 – Middle East & Africa Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………… 206

Table 45 – Middle East & Africa Warming Mitigation Market, Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 206

Table 46 – Middle East & Africa Cybersecurity Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 211

Table 47 – Middle East & Africa Cybersecurity Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 211

Table 48 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Cybersecurity Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…………… 211

Table 49 – Middle East & Africa Desalination Plants Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 222

Table 50 – Middle East & Africa Desalination Plants Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 223

Table 51 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Desalination Plants Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…… 223

Table 52 – Cost (Euro/MWh) of Domestic Heating in France………… 227

Table 53 – Cost (Euro/MW) of District Heating in France……………… 228

Table 54 – Middle East & Africa Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 228

Table 55 – Middle East & Africa Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………… 229

Table 56 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 229

Table 57 – Middle East & Africa Direct Solar Water Heating Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 234

Table 58 – Middle East & Africa Direct Solar Water Heating Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 236

Table 59 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Direct Solar Water Heating Market Share [%] – 2022-2030                                                                                  236

Table 60 – Middle East & Africa Electric Buses Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 242

Table 61 – Middle East & Africa Electric Buses Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 242

Table 62 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Electric Buses Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………….. 242

Table 63 – Middle East & Africa Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……. 249

Table 64 – Middle East & Africa Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030 249

Table 65 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………………………… 250

Table 66 – Middle East & Africa Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………… 255

Table 67 – Middle East & Africa Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………….. 256

Table 68 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………….. 256

Table 69 – Middle East & Africa EV Charging Systems Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………… 265

Table 70 – Middle East & Africa EV Charging Systems Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 266

Table 71 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, EV Charging Systems Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…….. 266

Table 72 – Middle East & Africa Extreme Weather Public Warning Systems Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030…………………… 275

Table 73 – Middle East & Africa Extreme Weather Public Warning Systems Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030…………….. 276

Table 74 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Extreme Weather Public Warning Systems Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 276

Table 75 – Middle East & Africa Floods Control Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 282

Table 76 – Middle East & Africa Floods Control Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 283

Table 77 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Floods Control Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…………. 283

Table 78 – Middle East & Africa Freight BEVs Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 286

Table 79 – Middle East & Africa Freight BEVs Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 287

Table 80 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Freight BEVs Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…………… 287

Table 81 – Middle East & Africa GHG Emission Tracking Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 294

Table 82 – Middle East & Africa GHG Emission Tracking Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 295

Table 83 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, GHG Emission Tracking Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…….. 295

Table 84 – Middle East & Africa Geothermal Power Generation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 303

Table 85 – Middle East & Africa Geothermal Power Generation Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 303

Table 86 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Geothermal Power Generation Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 304

Table 87 – Middle East & Africa Green Cement Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 311

Table 88 – Middle East & Africa Green Cement Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 311

Table 89 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Green Cement Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…………. 312

Table 90 – Color Codes by Hydrogen Manufacturing Process……….. 315

Table 91 – Comparative Table for Fossil Derived Hydrogen Production Pathways………………………………………………………… 317

Table 92 – Middle East & Africa Green Hydrogen Production Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 321

Table 93 – Middle East & Africa Green Hydrogen Production Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 321

Table 94 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Green Hydrogen Production Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 321

Table 95 – Middle East & Africa Green Steel Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 325

Table 96 – Middle East & Africa Green Steel Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 326

Table 97 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Green Steel Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…………….. 326

Table 98 – Middle East & Africa Grid Modernization Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 334

Table 99 – Middle East & Africa Grid Modernization Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 335

Table 100 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Grid Modernization Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……. 335

Table 101 – Middle East & Africa Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 342

Table 102 – Middle East & Africa Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 343

Table 103 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market Share [%] – 2022-2030                                                                                  343

Table 104 – Middle East & Africa Hydroelectric Energy Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 349

Table 105 – Middle East & Africa Hydroelectric Energy Storage Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 350

Table 106 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Hydroelectric Energy Storage Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 350

Table 107 – Middle East & Africa Hydroelectric Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………… 356

Table 108 – Middle East & Africa Hydroelectric Power Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 356

Table 109 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Hydroelectric Power Market Share [%] – 2022-2030….. 357

Table 110 – Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Vehicles Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 366

Table 111 – Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Vehicles Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 367

Table 112 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Hydrogen Vehicles Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……. 367

Table 113 – Electrolyzer Technologies Comparison……………………. 368

Table 114 – Hydrogen Color Codes of Hydrogen Manufacturing……. 371

Table 115 – Types of Electrolysers………………………………………….. 372

Table 116 – Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Electrolyzers Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 373

Table 117 – Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Electrolyzers Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 373

Table 118 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Hydrogen Electrolyzers Market Share [%] – 2022-2030. 374

Table 119 – Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 379

Table 120 – Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………… 379

Table 121 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 380

Table 122 – Middle East & Africa ICT (w/o Cyber, AI, Big Data) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 383

Table 123 – Middle East & Africa ICT (w/o Cyber, AI, Big Data) Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 384

Table 124 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, ICT (w/o Cyber, AI, Big Data) Market Share [%] – 2022-2030                                                                                  384

Table 125 – Cost Assumptions Under 2 Innovation Scenarios……….. 386

Table 126 – Middle East & Africa Low Carbon Fuels Manufacturing Plants Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………… 391

Table 127 – Middle East & Africa Low Carbon Fuels Manufacturing Plants Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………….. 392

Table 128 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Low Carbon Fuels Manufacturing Plants Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………… 392

Table 129 – Middle East & Africa Marine Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 398

Table 130 – Middle East & Africa Marine Power Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 398

Table 131 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Marine Power Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………….. 399

Table 132 – Middle East & Africa Methane Abatement Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………… 408

Table 133 – Middle East & Africa Methane Abatement Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 409

Table 134 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Methane Abatement Market Share [%] – 2022-2030….. 409

Table 135 – Middle East & Africa Nuclear Energy Plants > 1 GW Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 413

Table 136 – Middle East & Africa Nuclear Energy Plants > 1 GW Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 413

Table 137 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Nuclear Energy Plants > 1 GW Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 414

Table 138 – Middle East & Africa Offshore Wind Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 424

Table 139 – Middle East & Africa Offshore Wind Power Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 424

Table 140 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Offshore Wind Power Market Share [%] – 2022-2030… 424

Table 141 – Middle East & Africa Onshore Wind Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 429

Table 142 – Middle East & Africa Onshore Wind Power Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 429

Table 143 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Onshore Wind Power Market Share [%] – 2022-2030… 430

Table 144 – Middle East & Africa Other BEVs Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 439

Table 145 – Middle East & Africa Other BEVs Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 440

Table 146 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Other BEVs Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…………….. 440

Table 147 – Middle East & Africa Other Energy Storage Modalities Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 441

Table 148 – Middle East & Africa Other Energy Storage Modalities Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………… 441

Table 149 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Other Energy Storage Modalities Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 442

Table 150 –Other Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Markets Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………… 443

Table 151 – Middle East & Africa Other Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Markets Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 444

Table 152 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Other Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Markets Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………….. 444

Table 153 – Middle East & Africa Other Renewable Energy Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 445

Table 154 – Middle East & Africa Other Renewable Energy Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 445

Table 155 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Other Renewable Energy Market Share [%] – 2022-2030                                                                                  446

Table 156 – Middle East & Africa Passenger BEV Cars Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………… 458

Table 157 – Middle East & Africa Passenger BEV Cars Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 459

Table 158 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Passenger BEV Cars Market Share [%] – 2022-2030… 459

Table 159 – Middle East & Africa Passive Green Buildings Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 465

Table 160 – Middle East & Africa Passive Green Buildings Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 465

Table 161 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Passive Green Buildings Market Share [%] – 2022-2030                                                                                  465

Table 162 – Middle East & Africa Precision Agriculture Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………… 473

Table 163 – Middle East & Africa Precision Agriculture Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 473

Table 164 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Precision Agriculture Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…. 474

Table 165 – Middle East & Africa Precision Irrigation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 478

Table 166 – Middle East & Africa Precision Irrigation Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 479

Table 167 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Precision Irrigation Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……. 479

Table 168 – Middle East & Africa Reforestation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 490

Table 169 – Middle East & Africa Reforestation Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 491

Table 170 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Reforestation Market Share [%] – 2022-2030…………… 491

Table 171 – Middle East & Africa Regenerative Agriculture Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 495

Table 172 – Middle East & Africa Regenerative Agriculture Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 496

Table 173 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Regenerative Agriculture Market Share [%] – 2022-2030                                                                                  496

Table 174 – Middle East & Africa Rooftop Solar PV Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 499

Table 175 – Middle East & Africa Rooftop Solar PV Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 500

Table 176 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Rooftop Solar PV Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……… 500

Table 177 – Middle East & Africa Small Nuclear Reactors Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 504

Table 178 – Middle East & Africa Small Nuclear Reactors Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 504

Table 179 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Small Nuclear Reactors Market Share [%] – 2022-2030 505

Table 180 – Middle East & Africa Solar PV (Utility Scale) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 512

Table 181 – Middle East & Africa Solar PV (Utility Scale) Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 513

Table 182 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Solar PV (Utility Scale) Market Share [%] – 2022-2030. 513

Table 183 – Middle East & Africa Thermal Energy Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 519

Table 184 – Middle East & Africa Thermal Energy Storage Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 519

Table 185 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Thermal Energy Storage Market Share [%] – 2022-2030                                                                                  520

Table 186 – Middle East & Africa Two & Three-Wheeler BEVs Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 522

Table 187 – Middle East & Africa Two & Three-Wheeler BEVs Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 523

Table 188 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Two & Three-Wheeler BEVs Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 523

Table 189 – Middle East & Africa Waste to Energy Plants Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 527

Table 190 – Middle East & Africa Waste to Energy Plants Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 527

Table 191 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Waste to Energy Plants Market Share [%] – 2022-2030 528

Table 192 – Middle East & Africa Water Redeemable Systems Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 535

Table 193 – Middle East & Africa Water Redeemable Systems Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 535

Table 194 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Water Redeemable Systems Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 536

Table 195 – Middle East & Africa Weather Monitoring, Modeling & Forecasting Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………. 540

Table 196 – Middle East & Africa Weather Monitoring, Modeling & Forecasting Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………… 541

Table 197 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Weather Monitoring, Modeling & Forecasting Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………….. 541

Table 198 – Middle East & Africa Wildfire Mitigation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 545

Table 199 – Middle East & Africa Wildfire Mitigation Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 545

Table 200 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market, Wildfire Mitigation Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……… 545

Table 201 – Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptation Market by Sector [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………. 548

Table 202 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………………… 552

Table 203 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market AGRs [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………. 553

Table 204 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Technologies Market Size [$B] By Country – 2020-2030                                                                                  559

Table 205 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market AGRs [%] By Country – 2020-2030……………………….. 560

Table 206 – National Market Shares of the Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market [%] – 2020-2030…………….. 562

Table 207 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Infrastructure Markets Size [$B] By Country – 2020-2030                                                                                  565

Table 208 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Products Sales [$B] By Country – 2020-2030………………………. 567

Table 209 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Maintenance Markets Size [$B] By Country – 2020-2030                                                                                  568

Table 210 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Upgrades Markets Size [$B] By Country – 2020-2030…………….. 570

Table 211 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Other* Revenue Sources [$B] By Country – 2020-2030………. 572

 

Figures

Figure 1 – COP26 Pledges & Targets Based GHG Emission [GTn] Forecast to 2030………………………………………………… 54

Figure 2 – Middle East & Africa Warming 2010-2020 by GHG Source. 55

Figure 3 – Renewable Energy Generation By Technology & By User.. 57

Figure 4 – Greenhouse Gas Emissions [%] by Sector……………………. 58

Figure 5 – Climate Change Causes and Effects…………………………… 59

Figure 6- Middle East & Africa Energy demand (left) & GHS Emission (Right) By Sector – 2020………………………………………. 60

Figure 7 – GHG Emission per GWh of Energy Production – 2020…….. 61

Figure 8 – Average USA Levelized cost [$/MWh] of Electricity By Energy Technology – 2020……………………………………. 61

Figure 9 – Renewable Electricity Generation by Technology and Region                                                                                    62

Figure 10 – Middle East & Africa Electricity Consumption by Energy Source – 1985-2020……………………………………………. 62

Figure 11 – Levelized Cost [$/MWh] of Energy, by Source – 2008-2020                                                                                    62

Figure 12 – Renewable, Nuclear & Fossil Energy Prices [$/MWh] & Installed Capacity – 2010-2019……………………………… 63

Figure 13 – Middle East & Africa Warming vs. Number of Climate-Related Disasters – 1970-2032………………………………. 65

Figure 14 – Energy Storage: Duration Time and Rated Power by Modality……………………………………………………………. 65

Figure 15 – Renewable Generation Capacity By Region………………… 66

Figure 16 – Leading Renewable Energy Capacity [GW] by Country – 2020………………………………………………………………… 66

Figure 17 – Negative Emissions Role in Achieving NetZero……………. 67

Figure 18 – Middle East & Africa GHG Emission Reduction [%] by Technology – 2030………………………………………………. 72

Figure 19 – Middle East & Africa Electricity Generation [000 TWh] by Source – 2010- 2040……………………………………………. 73

Figure 20 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market by Region [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………… 82

Figure 21 – Air Source Heat Pump: Winter & Summer Operation…… 111

Figure 22 – Air Source Heat Pump, Heating Cycle……………………… 112

Figure 23 – Air to Air Heat Pump…………………………………………….. 113

Figure 24 – Air to Water Heat Pump………………………………………… 114

Figure 25 – Performance Standards For residential AC and Heat Pumps                                                                                  119

Figure 26 – Middle East & Africa Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 120

Figure 27 – Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning………… 121

Figure 28 – Types of Big Data Analytics…………………………………… 122

Figure 29 – Data Mining Process…………………………………………….. 123

Figure 30 – Middle East & Africa Big Data & AI Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 125

Figure 31 – Middle East & Africa LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020……………………………………………………….. 128

Figure 32 – Bioenergy Thermo-Chemical Process………………………. 132

Figure 33 – Bioenergy Bio-Chemical Process…………………………….. 133

Figure 34 – Middle East & Africa Bioenergy Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 142

Figure 35 – Bioenergy with Carbon Capture & Sequestration………… 143

Figure 36 – Microalgae Based Biological Carbon Capture……………. 143

Figure 37- Marine Bacteria Carbon Sequestration……………………… 144

Figure 38 – Microalgae Carbon Biological Capture & Utilization Footprint                                                                                  145

Figure 39 – Middle East & Africa Biological Carbon Capture & Sequestration Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………. 148

Figure 40 – Bioremediation Strategies……………………………………… 149

Figure 41 – Operation of Bio Slurping………………………………………. 150

Figure 42 – Permeable Reactive Barriers………………………………….. 151

Figure 43 – Bioventing System……………………………………………….. 151

Figure 44 – Typical Biosparging System…………………………………… 152

Figure 45 – Middle East & Africa Bioremediation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 158

Figure 46 – The CCS Process………………………………………………… 159

Figure 47 – Carbon Capture and Storage Value Chain………………… 159

Figure 48 – Middle East & Africa Carbon Capture & Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 164

Figure 49 – CCU Applications Roadmap…………………………………… 166

Figure 50 – Carbon Capture & Utilization and Removal Cycle………. 167

Figure 51 – Carbon Capture & Utilization Removal Pathways……….. 167

Figure 52 – CCU Potential and Cost Of Various Sub-Pathways Outlook – 2050………………………………………………………………. 169

Figure 53 – Middle East & Africa Carbon Capture & Utilization Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 173

Figure 54 – Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture ……………. 174

Figure 55 – Agriculture GHG Emissions……………………………………. 175

Figure 56 – The EU 2030 Targets for Substantial Food Production…. 176

Figure 57 – The Main Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources, Removals and Processes In Managed Ecosystems………………… 177

Figure 58 – Middle East & Africa Climate Adapted Agriculture Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 181

Figure 59 – Middle East & Africa Water Stress Map…………………….. 183

Figure 60 – Middle East & Africa Water Extraction and Consumption by End User– 1900-2025………………………………………… 185

Figure 61 – Water Supply Adaptation Strategy…………………………… 186

Figure 62 – Potential Drought Adaptation Measures……………………. 188

Figure 63 –Middle East & Africa Urban Population Facing Water Scarcity 2019-2050……………………………………………. 189

Figure 64 – Climate Change Impact on Water Supply………………….. 190

Figure 65 – Adapting Water Management to Climate Change……….. 191

Figure 66 – Metrices for Decision Making  ………………………………… 192

Figure 67 – Middle East & Africa Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 199

Figure 68 – System Power Rating and Discharge Times of Energy Storage Technologies………………………………………… 202

Figure 69 – Compressed-Air Energy Storage System………………….. 203

Figure 70 – A Small Scale Compressed Air Storage System…………. 203

Figure 71 – Middle East & Africa Compressed-Air Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 205

Figure 72 – Middle East & Africa Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Concentrating Solar Power vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………….. 207

Figure 73 – Concentrating Solar Power System Layout and Costs…. 208

Figure 74 – Middle East & Africa LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020……………………………………………………….. 209

Figure 75 – Middle East & Africa Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 211

Figure 76 – Electricity Distribution Infrastructure…………………………. 213

Figure 77 – Power Grids Cybersecurity Infrastructure………………….. 214

Figure 78 – Middle East & Africa Cybersecurity Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 217

Figure 79 – Desalination Capacity By [%] by Region – 2020………….. 219

Figure 80 – Reverse Osmosis Process…………………………………….. 220

Figure 81 – Reverse Osmosis Desalination Process……………………. 221

Figure 82 – Middle East & Africa Desalination Plants Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 228

Figure 83 – Applications of Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy… 231

Figure 84 – Closed (Left) & Open (Right) loop Geothermal Heat Pumps                                                                                  232

Figure 85 – EU Areas Suitable for Geothermal Networks & Actual Geothermal Installed Capacity……………………………… 233

Figure 86 – Middle East & Africa Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 234

Figure 87 – Residential Direct Solar Water Heating System………….. 236

Figure 88 – Total Installed Solar Heating Area by Region – 2020……. 237

Figure 89 – Direct Solar Water Heating System Elements…………….. 237

Figure 90 – Direct Solar Heating Capacity [KW/1000 citizens] in 10 Leading Countries – 2020……………………………………. 238

Figure 91 – Middle East & Africa Solar Thermal Capacity [TWh] and Energy [TWh] – 2000-2022………………………………….. 239

Figure 92 – Distribution of Solar Thermal Systems for Newly Installed Water Collector by Region – 2020…………………………. 240

Figure 93 – Middle East & Africa Direct Solar Water Heating Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 241

Figure 94 – E-Bus Charging Technologies………………………………… 243

Figure 95 – Enabling E-Bus Adoption Factors……………………………. 246

Figure 96 – Middle East & Africa Electric Buses Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 248

Figure 97 – Performance Standards For residential AC and Heat Pumps                                                                                  251

Figure 98 – Thermoelectric Effect……………………………………………. 252

Figure 99 – Magtor Linear Motor Oscillator Drive………………………… 254

Figure 100 – Middle East & Africa Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……. 255

Figure 101 – Energy Consumption By End-Use (Excludes Transport, Energy Losses in Production or Transmission And Non-Motive Power Industrial Energy Uses)……………………. 259

Figure 102 – Middle East & Africa Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………… 261

Figure 103 – Electric Passengers vs. Plug in Chargers………………… 264

Figure 104 – Charging Times to Provide 100 km of Passenger EV Vehicle Driving…………………………………………………. 265

Figure 105 – US Passengers EV Charging Infrastructure – 2015-2040                                                                                  266

Figure 106 – Middle East & Africa EV Charging Systems Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 271

Figure 107 – Sweden Public Alarm Infrastructure Evolution………….. 273

Figure 108 – The UN Risk Based Public Warning Evolution -1960-2020                                                                                  274

Figure 109 – Public Warning System Architecture………………………. 275

Figure 110 – The Israeli Public (Location Based) Alarm System Poster                                                                                  276

Figure 111 – Mobile Alarm System………………………………………….. 278

Figure 112 – Cell Broadcast…………………………………………………… 279

Figure 113 – Geo Fenced Alarm System………………………………….. 280

Figure 114 – Fixed WIFI Alarm System…………………………………….. 281

Figure 115 – Middle East & Africa Extreme Weather Public Warning Systems Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030…………………… 281

Figure 116 – An Integrated Flood Protection……………………………… 283

Figure 117 – Storm Surge Flooding…………………………………………. 284

Figure 118 – Provisional Flood Barriers……………………………………. 285

Figure 119 – Tidal Flood Barrier……………………………………………… 286

Figure 120 – Middle East & Africa Floods Control Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 288

Figure 121 – Middle East & Africa Freight BEVs Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 292

Figure 122 – Greenhouse Gas Emissions [%] By Sector……………… 294

Figure 123 – GHG Emission Tracking Technologies……………………. 295

Figure 124 – CO2 Emissions [GTn] by Geography – 1960-2020…….. 297

Figure 125 – MethaneSAT Performance………………………………….. 299

Figure 126 – Methane Surveillance Technologies. Frequency-Range vs. Resolution……………………………………………………….. 299

Figure 127 – Middle East & Africa GHG Emission Tracking Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 300

Figure 128 – Middle East & Africa Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Geothermal vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………………………………. 302

Figure 129 – Geothermal Electricity Generation Technologies……. 303

Figure 130 – Middle East & Africa LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020……………………………………………………….. 303

Figure 131 – Enhanced Geothermal Systems……………………………. 304

Figure 132 – Geothermal Power Generation……………………………… 305

Figure 133 – Map of 64 EGS Projects Around the World – 2020…….. 307

Figure 134 – Middle East & Africa Geothermal Power Generation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 309

Figure 135 – Cement Manufacturing Energy Use and GHG Emissions                                                                                  311

Figure 136 – Cement Production Outlook by Region – 2020-2050….. 312

Figure 137 – Decarbonization Actions to Net-Zero Cement & Concrete Industry…………………………………………………………… 313

Figure 138 – Cement Demand Forecast per Region – 2020-2060…… 314

Figure 139 – Low Carbon Levels Across the Lifecycle of Cement…… 316

Figure 140 – Middle East & Africa Green Cement Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 317

Figure 141 – Hydrogen Consumption [M. Ton/Annum] by Country – 2020                                                                                  319

Figure 142 – Green Hydrogen Value Chain………………………………. 320

Figure 143 – Future “Hydrogen Economy” Infrastructure………………. 325

Figure 144 – Middle East & Africa Green Hydrogen Production Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 327

Figure 145 – Green Steel Production Using CCS & CCU……………… 328

Figure 146 – Crude Steel Production Market Share [%] by country 2020                                                                                  328

Figure 147 – Green Steel Manufacturing Process……………………….. 329

Figure 148 – Means and Methods to Reduce Carbon in the Steel Industry…………………………………………………………… 330

Figure 149 – Middle East & Africa Green Steel Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 331

Figure 150 – Diagram of a Conventional Electric Power System…….. 333

Figure 151 – Modern Grid Architecture ……………………………………. 334

Figure 152 – Climate Change Effects on the Electricity Grid………….. 335

Figure 153 – Smart Grid Architecture……………………………………….. 336

Figure 154 -Smart Grid Priorities……………………………………………. 339

Figure 155 – Middle East & Africa Grid Modernization Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 340

Figure 156 – System Power Rating and Discharge Times of Energy Storage Technologies………………………………………… 342

Figure 157 – Grid Battery Storage Infrastructure………………………… 343

Figure 158 – Next Generation Battery Storage Goals………………….. 344

Figure 159 – Grid-Scale Battery Storage System……………………….. 344

Figure 160 – Middle East & Africa Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 349

Figure 161 – Pumped Storage Hydropower Site…………………………. 350

Figure 162 – Pumped Hydro Energy Storage, Power Rating and Discharge Times Vs. Other Energy Storage Technologies                                                                                  351

Figure 163 – Pumped Hydro Energy Storage System Layout………… 352

Figure 164 – Middle East & Africa Hydroelectric Energy Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 355

Figure 165 – Hydropower Installed Capacity by Country………………. 357

Figure 166 – Middle East & Africa Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Hydropower vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………………………………. 358

Figure 167 – Middle East & Africa LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020……………………………………………………….. 358

Figure 168 – Hydropower Generation [TW h] by Region -1965-2020. 359

Figure 169- A Hydropower Plant…………………………………………….. 361

Figure 170 – Middle East & Africa Hydroelectric Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………… 362

Figure 171 – Fuel Cell Passenger Vehicle Elements……………………. 364

Figure 172 – Hydrogen Pickup Truck……………………………………….. 364

Figure 173 – Hydrogen Truck Layout……………………………………….. 365

Figure 174 – Toyota Hydrogen Truck……………………………………….. 365

Figure 175 – EV Truck vs. Hydrogen Long Haul Truck Performance Outlook 2025 & 2030…………………………………………. 366

Figure 176 – Yamaha Motor Hydrogen Engine Prototype – 2021……. 367

Figure 177 – Yamaha Hydrogen Engine…………………………………… 368

Figure 178 – Total Cost of Ownership of SUVs in the US, 2030…….. 370

Figure 179 – Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Vehicles Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 372

Figure 180 – Hydrogen Electrolyzer Electro-Chemistry………………… 375

Figure 181 – Description of Several Electrolysers Source: K. Malladi Et.Al…………………………………………………….. 375

Figure 182 – Electrolyzer Manufacturing [GW] Capacity 2021-2024… 377

Figure 183 – Future Hydrogen Economy Infrastructure………………… 378

Figure 184 – Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Electrolyzers Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 379

Figure 185 – Honda Home Filling Station………………………………….. 381

Figure 186 -Transport Fuel Hydrogen Production Routes…………….. 382

Figure 187 – Hydrogen Fueling System Architecture…………………… 383

Figure 188 – Hydrogen Fueling Station…………………………………….. 383

Figure 189 – Hydrogen Fueling HySTAT…………………………………… 384

Figure 190 – Middle East & Africa Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 385

Figure 191 – Middle East & Africa ICT (w/o Cyber, AI, Big Data) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 389

Figure 192 – Distribution of Synthetic Fuels and Advanced Biofuels Costs……………………………………………………………… 391

Figure 193 – Impact of Innovation on the Energy System……………… 394

Figure 194 – Simplified Value Chain for Low Carbon Fuels…………… 395

Figure 195 – GVA and Jobs in the Low Carbon Fuels Industry to 2050                                                                                  396

Figure 196 – Middle East & Africa Low Carbon Fuels Manufacturing Plants Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………… 397

Figure 197 – Middle East & Africa LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020……………………………………………………….. 399

Figure 198 – Ocean thermal energy Conversion System (Right) and Oscillating Water Column System (Left)…………………. 400

Figure 199 – Wave Power System………………………………………….. 403

Figure 200 – Middle East & Africa Marine Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 404

Figure 201 – Ultra Emitting Methane Events 2019-2020………………. 406

Figure 202 – Methane Emission Sources (Left) & 1990-2050 Emissions (Right)…………………………………………………………….. 407

Figure 203 – 2020-2030 Human Caused Methane Emissions and Identified Mitigation Potential by Sectors………………… 408

Figure 204 – Emissions Abatement and Negative Emissions Infrastructure……………………………………………………. 411

Figure 205 – Middle East & Africa GHG Abatement Cost Beyond BAU- 2030………………………………………………………………. 412

Figure 206 – Middle East & Africa Methane Abatement Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………… 414

Figure 207 – Middle East & Africa Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Nuclear Energy Plants vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………….. 416

Figure 208 – Middle East & Africa LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020……………………………………………………….. 417

Figure 209 – Middle East & Africa Nuclear Energy Plants > 1 GW Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 419

Figure 210 – Middle East & Africa Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Offshore Wind vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021………………………………….. 421

Figure 211 – Wind Turbine Power and Size 1985-2030……………….. 422

Figure 212 – Middle East & Africa LCOEs from Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020……………………………………………………….. 422

Figure 213 – U.S. DOE Offshore Wind Energy 2030 Goals…………… 425

Figure 214- Middle East & Africa Installed Base Power [MW] of Offshore Wind Power to 2020…………………………………………… 425

Figure 215 – Annual 2001-2021 Additional Offshore Wind Installed Capacity [GW] China vs. the Rest of World……………… 426

Figure 216 – Middle East & Africa Offshore Wind Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 430

Figure 217 – Onshore Wind Turbines LCOE, Size, Capacity & Impacts – 2030………………………………………………………………. 431

Figure 218 – Middle East & Africa Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Onshore Wind Power vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………….. 432

Figure 219 – Middle East & Africa LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020……………………………………………………….. 432

Figure 220 – Middle East & Africa Onshore Wind Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 435

Figure 221 – BNSF Battery-Electric Locomotive…………………………. 437

Figure 222 – Airbus’ E-Fan Electric Plane…………………………………. 440

Figure 223 – A Cut Away View of the HE HMMWV……………………… 441

Figure 224 – A cut-away view of the HEMITT…………………………….. 442

Figure 225 – Middle East & Africa Other BEVs Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 445

Figure 226 – Middle East & Africa Other Energy Storage Modalities Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 447

Figure 227 – Other Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Markets Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………… 449

Figure 228 – Middle East & Africa Other Renewable Energy Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 451

Figure 229 – Middle East & Africa Passenger Cars Sales [Million/ Annum] by Technology – 2018-2035……………………… 453

Figure 230 – 100% Phase Out of ICE Countries…………………………. 455

Figure 231 – EVs vs. Renewables vs. Electrification Timeline – 2020-2050………………………………………………………………. 456

Figure 232 – EPA Rang [Mile] for 2020-Model Battery Passenger EV 458

Figure 233 – US Passengers BEV & Plug-in Sales [Units] – 2015-2025                                                                                  459

Figure 234 – Electric Cars vs. ICE Car Materials by % of the Total Weight …………………………………………………………… 461

Figure 235 – Middle East & Africa Passenger BEV Cars Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 464

Figure 236 – Passive House Design………………………………………… 466

Figure 237 – GHG Abatement for The Building Sector…………………. 470

Figure 238 – Middle East & Africa Passive Green Buildings Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 471

Figure 239 – Components of a Precision Agriculture System………… 472

Figure 240 – Precision Agriculture Technologies……………………….. 473

Figure 241 – Precision Agriculture Stakeholders………………………… 474

Figure 242 – Middle East & Africa Precision Agriculture Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………… 479

Figure 243 – Precision Irrigation System…………………………………… 481

Figure 244 – Middle East & Africa Precision Irrigation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 484

Figure 245 – Annual Loss of Forest Cover – 2000-2020………………. 487

Figure 246 – Forest Transition Model………………………………………. 488

Figure 247 – Middle East & Africa Reforestation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 496

Figure 248 – Middle East & Africa Regenerative Agriculture Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 501

Figure 249 – Middle East & Africa Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Rooftop Solar vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021………………………………….. 503

Figure 250 – Middle East & Africa Rooftop Solar PV Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 506

Figure 251 – Middle East & Africa Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Small Nuclear Reactors vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………….. 507

Figure 252 – Middle East & Africa LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020……………………………………………………….. 508

Figure 253 – Middle East & Africa Small Nuclear Reactors Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 510

Figure 254 – Installed Base of Solar PV by Country…………………….. 512

Figure 255 – Middle East & Africa Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Solar PV vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………………………………. 513

Figure 256 – Middle East & Africa LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020……………………………………………………….. 514

Figure 257 – Ground Mounted Solar PV System………………………… 515

Figure 258 -The DOE Solar PV Deployment [GW] Outlook 2020-2050                                                                                  516

Figure 259 – Middle East & Africa Solar PV (Utility Scale) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 518

Figure 260 – System Power Rating and Discharge Times Of Energy Storage Technologies………………………………………… 520

Figure 261 – Thermal Energy Storage (TES) System Layout………… 521

Figure 262 – Residential Thermal Energy Storage……………………… 522

Figure 263 – Middle East & Africa Thermal Energy Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 525

Figure 264 – Three E-Wheelers……………………………………………… 527

Figure 265 – Middle East & Africa Two & Three-Wheeler BEVs Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 528

Figure 266 – Waste Management Process………………………………… 530

Figure 267 – UN Projection of the Middle East & Africa Waste [M Ton/Annum] Quantity – 1950-2050……………………….. 531

Figure 268 – Middle East & Africa Waste to Energy Plants Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 533

Figure 269 – Recycled Water Infrastructure………………………………. 535

Figure 270 – Overview of Integrated Regional Water Management Planning and Climate Change……………………………… 536

Figure 271 – Sewage Treatment Infrastructure Elements……………… 537

Figure 272 – A Sewage Treatment Plant…………………………………… 539

Figure 273 – Middle East & Africa Water Redeemable Systems Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………… 541

Figure 274 – Middle East & Africa Weather Monitoring, Modeling & Forecasting Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………. 546

Figure 275 – The U.S. Wildfires Facts……………………………………… 549

Figure 276 – Middle East & Africa Wildfire Mitigation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 551

Figure 277 – Cumulative 2022-2030 Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptation Market by Sector [$T]. 556

Figure 278 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptation Market Share by Sector [%] – 2022-2030… 557

Figure 279 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………….. 559

Figure 280 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………. 560

Figure 281 – Energy Use Per Person, 2019………………………………. 561

Figure 282 – Consumption-Based Energy Use Per Person: Middle East & Africa Map, 2020……………………………………………. 562

Figure 283 – Consumption-Based Energy Use Per Person: Selected Countries………………………………………………………… 563

Figure 284 – Primary Energy Consumption by World Region – 1965-2020………………………………………………………………. 563

Figure 285 – World Energy Trilemma Index: Leading Countries – 2021                                                                                  564

Figure 286 – Middle East & Africa Climate Change Mitigation Market Share by Country – 2030…………………………………….. 570

Figure 287 – Installed Energy Capacity of Algeria, 2019 vs. Projected 2028………………………………………………………………. 580

Figure 288 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe)………… 582

Figure 289 – Iran’s Electricity Generation by Fuel, 2019………………. 585

Figure 290 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source in Israel (Mtoe)                                                                                  587

Figure 291 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Saudi Arabia, 1990-2019………………………………………………………………. 592

Figure 292 – South Africa Electricity Consumption Breakdown by Sector (2020, %)………………………………………………………… 595

Figure 293 – Electricity Generation in Turkey from 2019 to 2020, by Fuel                                                                                  598

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