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HSRCPassive & Active Heating and Cooling Technologies & Markets – 2022-2030 – With Corona & COP26 Impacts
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Passive & Active Heating and Cooling Technologies & Markets - 2022-2030 – With Corona & COP26 Impacts

Bottom-up Research of 313 Submarkets. Cumulative 2022-30 Market $2.5 Trillion.

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Description

The 376-page Passive & Active Heating and Cooling Technologies & Markets – 2022-2030 – With Corona & COP26 Impacts report contains a thorough analysis of 6 technologies, 5 regional, 5 revenue source and 60 national markets, detailing 313 submarkets. The cumulative 2022-2030 market is forecasted to total $2.52 trillion.

 

The cheapest kilowatt of energy is the one you never use.

Geothermal Heating and Cooling

Courtesy: The Australian DOE

Direct Residential Geothermal Heating & Cooling

Key market drivers are:

  • Investors’ eagerness for financing the $2.52 trillion Passive & Active Heating and Cooling industry
  • Availability of Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling, CSP, Direct Solar Water Heating, Heat Pumps, Thermal Energy Storage, Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration and other energy-efficient electric appliances technologies and their cost-performance improvement at a fast pace
  • The COP26 investment pledges
  • Multi-trillion business opportunities that present the Passive & Active Heating and Cooling market
  • Unprecedented public support drives governments and the private sector to invest in the green revolution
  • Government subsidies and investments
  • The drive of conservative industries (e.g., Building, Electric appliances, Space HAVC, Geothermal and Direct solar Heating) to join the climate control gold rush
  • The invasion of Ukraine limited the supply of gas for heating and cooling in Europe. European governments introduced sweeping changes to planning laws and incentives to replace their gas based heating and cooling.

This market report is the utmost comprehensive review of the Passive & Active Heating and Cooling market available today.

Questions answered in this report include:

  • What will the 2022-2030 market size be?
  • How do COP26 & Corona affect the market?
  • Which submarkets provide attractive business opportunities?
  • What drives customers to invest?
  • What are the technologies trends?
  • What are the challenges to market penetration & growth?
  • How much are countries expected to invest in Passive & Active Heating and Cooling?

Passive & Active Heating and Cooling Market Segmentation Vectors

 

What does the Passive & Active Heating and Cooling Technologies & Markets – 2022-2030 – With Corona & COP26 Impacts report give you?

A. The Passive & Active Heating and Cooling Technologies market size data is analyzed via four independent perspectives.

1. By 6 Passive & Active Heating and Cooling Technologies:

  • Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling
  • Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)
  • Direct Solar Water Heating
  • Air Source Heat Pumps        
  • Thermal Energy Storage
  • Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR)
  • Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR)

 2. By 5 Revenue Source Markets:

  • Infrastructure
  • Product Sales
  • Maintenance
  • Upgrades
  • Other

3. By 5 Regional Markets:

  1. North America
  2. Latin America
  3. Europe
  4. Middle East & Africa
  5. Asia Pacific

4. By 60 National Markets:

  • The U.S.
  • Canada
  • Argentina
  • Brazil
  • Chile
  • Colombia
  • Cuba
  • Ecuador
  • Mexico
  • Peru
  • Puerto Rico
  • Venezuela
  • Rest of Latin America
  • Austria
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Italy
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • UK
  • Ukraine
  • Rest of Europe
  • Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Iran
  • Israel
  • Kuwait
  • Saudi Arabia
  • South Africa
  • Turkey
  • UAE
  • Rest of MEA
  • Australia
  • China
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Japan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Philippines
  • South Korea
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Rest of Asia-Pacific

B. Detailed market analysis frameworks are provided, including:

  • Market drivers & inhibitors
  • Business opportunities
  • SWOT analysis
  • Competitive analysis
  • Business environment
  • The 2020-2030 market
  • Industry Value Chain   
  • Financing & Loans       
  • Governmental R&D Funding    

C. Companies mentioned in the report: 

  • Aalborg CSP
  • Abengoa Solar
  • Acciona Energy
  • ACWA Power
  • Areva
  • Azure Power
  • Baltimore Aircoil Company
  • BrightSource Energy
  • BSH Home Appliances
  • Burns & Mcdonnel
  • Calmac
  • Carrier Corporation
  • Central Electronics
  • Chemtrols Solar
  • Climate Change Technologies
  • Cobra
  • Daikin Industries Ltd.
  • DC Pro Engineering
  • DN Tanks
  • Electrolux
  • Emmvee Solar Systems
  • eSolar 
  • Euro Multivision
  • GlassPoint Solar
  • Greenera Energy India Pvt
  • Haier
  • Iberdrola
  • Ice Energy Technologies Inc.
  • IndoSolar
  • Ingersoll-Rand PLC
  • Jupiter Solar Power
  • Lanco Solar Private
  • LG
  • Lointek
  • Magtor
  • Mahindra Solar One
  • Midea
  • Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
  • Moser Baer Photovoltaic
  • NIBE Industrier AB
  • Novatec
  • Panasonic Corporation
  • Rackam
  • Rioglass Solar
  • Robert Bosch GmbH (Bosch Thermotechnology Corporation)
  • Schott
  • SENER
  • Sener Group
  • Shams Power
  • Solar Euromed
  • Solarlite
  • SolarReserve
  • Soliterm Group
  • Sopogy Micro CSP
  • Stiebel Eltron GmbH & Co. KG
  • The Glen Dimplex Group
  • Torresol Energy
  • Vattenfall
  • Viessmann Group
  • Whirlpool
  • Wizard Power

 

Why Buy:

Bottom-up Research. The report provides you with exhaustive bottom-up research of Passive & Active Heating and Cooling related markets

Unique Analysts Team. Our multilingual team brings 40 years of hands-on record in the industry, corporate positions of chairperson, CEO, CTO, chief scientist, VP R & R&D, VP marketing, $8 B of products commercialization. The team published 352 market reports.

Extensive Research.  The report research team conducted interviews with dozens of experts. It reviewed over 380 reports, documents and papers published by other experts (including, for example, DOE, IEA, IRENA, the UN, the White House, the EU, US Congress CRS, the UK, German, PRC, Indian and other government agencies, SEC filings, investors’ presentations and more).

Multi-Source Intelligence Verification. With a highly fragmented market, we addressed each dollar spent. The global warming mitigation market was analyzed and crosschecked via 4 orthogonal viewpoints: technologies and services, countries, revenue sources and regions.

COP26 Revision. To guarantee the accuracy of the data and market size forecasts, we revised the report by following and analyzing the Glasgow COP26 meetings deliberations and investment pledges.

Money Trail. The report is the only study of ‘when?’, ‘where?’, ‘why?’ and ‘how much?’ of the cumulative 2022-2030 $2.5 trillion go to market.

Report Excel. Once you buy the report, you can get for a nominal price its Excel version.

Customized for Decision-Makers. This report aims to provide today’s strategic decision-makers with an expert 360-degree, time-sensitive, detailed view of this interconnected market.

 

 

Table of Contents

Download TOC as PDF

Figure 1 – COP26 Pledges & Targets Based GHG Emission [GTn] Forecast to 2030………………………………………………… 39

Figure 2 – Global Warming 2010-2020 by GHG Source…………………. 40

Figure 3 – Renewable Energy Generation By Technology & By User.. 42

Figure 4 – Greenhouse Gas Emissions [%] by Sector……………………. 43

Figure 5 – Climate Change Causes and Effects…………………………… 44

Figure 6- Global Energy demand (left) & GHS Emission (Right) By Sector – 2020…………………………………………………….. 45

Figure 7 – GHG Emission per GWh of Energy Production – 2020…….. 46

Figure 8 – Average USA Levelized cost [$/MWh] of Electricity By Energy Technology – 2020……………………………………. 46

Figure 9 – Renewable Electricity Generation by Technology and Region                                                                                    47

Figure 10 – Global Electricity Consumption by Energy Source – 1985-2020………………………………………………………………… 47

Figure 11 – Levelized Cost [$/MWh] of Energy, by Source – 2008-2020                                                                                    47

Figure 12 – Renewable, Nuclear & Fossil Energy Prices [$/MWh] & Installed Capacity – 2010-2019……………………………… 48

Figure 13 – Global Warming vs. Number of Climate-Related Disasters – 1970-2032…………………………………………………………. 50

Figure 14 – Energy Storage: Duration Time and Rated Power by Modality……………………………………………………………. 50

Figure 15 – Renewable Generation Capacity By Region………………… 51

Figure 16 – Leading Renewable Energy Capacity [GW] by Country – 2020………………………………………………………………… 51

Figure 17 – Negative Emissions Role in Achieving NetZero……………. 52

Figure 18 – Global GHG Emission Reduction [%] by Technology – 2030                                                                                    57

Figure 19 – Global Electricity Generation [000 TWh] by Source – 2010- 2040………………………………………………………………… 58

Figure 20 – Global Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market by Region [$B] – 2022-2030………………………… 66

Figure 21 – Global LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020 96

Figure 22 – Bioenergy Thermo-Chemical Process………………………. 100

Figure 23 – Bioenergy Bio-Chemical Process…………………………….. 101

Figure 24 – Global Bioenergy Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030…………. 110

Figure 25 – System Power Rating and Discharge Times of Energy Storage Technologies………………………………………… 111

Figure 26 – Compressed-Air Energy Storage System………………….. 112

Figure 27 – A Small Scale Compressed Air Storage System…………. 112

Figure 28 – Global Compressed-Air Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 114

Figure 29 – Global Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Concentrating Solar Power vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021………………………………….. 116

Figure 30 – Concentrating Solar Power System Layout and Costs…. 117

Figure 31 – Global LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020                                                                                  118

Figure 32 – Global Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 120

Figure 33 – Applications of Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy… 123

Figure 34 – Closed (Left) & Open (Right) loop Geothermal Heat Pumps                                                                                  124

Figure 35 – EU Areas Suitable for Geothermal Networks & Actual Geothermal Installed Capacity……………………………… 125

Figure 36 – Global Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 126

Figure 37 – Residential Direct Solar Water Heating System………….. 128

Figure 38 – Total Installed Solar Heating Area by Region – 2020……. 129

Figure 39 – Direct Solar Water Heating System Elements…………….. 129

Figure 40 – Direct Solar Heating Capacity [KW/1000 citizens] in 10 Leading Countries – 2020……………………………………. 130

Figure 41 – Global Solar Thermal Capacity [TWh] and Energy [TWh] – 2000-2022……………………………………………………….. 131

Figure 42 – Distribution of Solar Thermal Systems for Newly Installed Water Collector by Region – 2020…………………………. 131

Figure 43 – Global Direct Solar Water Heating Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 132

Figure 44 – Global Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Geothermal vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021…………………………………………………………. 134

Figure 45 – Geothermal Electricity Generation Technologies……… 135

Figure 46 – Global LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020                                                                                  135

Figure 47 – Enhanced Geothermal Systems……………………………… 136

Figure 48 – Geothermal Power Generation……………………………….. 137

Figure 49 – Map of 64 EGS Projects Around the World – 2020………. 139

Figure 50 – Global Geothermal Power Generation Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 141

Figure 51 – Diagram of a Conventional Electric Power System……… 143

Figure 52 – Modern Grid Architecture ……………………………………… 144

Figure 53 – Climate Change Effects on the Electricity Grid……………. 145

Figure 54 – Smart Grid Architecture………………………………………… 146

Figure 55 -Smart Grid Priorities……………………………………………… 149

Figure 56 – Global Grid Modernization Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030 150

Figure 57 – System Power Rating and Discharge Times of Energy Storage Technologies………………………………………… 152

Figure 58 – Grid Battery Storage Infrastructure………………………….. 153

Figure 59 – Next Generation Battery Storage Goals…………………… 154

Figure 60 – Grid-Scale Battery Storage System…………………………. 154

Figure 61 – Global Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 159

Figure 62 – Pumped Storage Hydropower Site…………………………… 160

Figure 63 – Pumped Hydro Energy Storage, Power Rating and Discharge Times Vs. Other Energy Storage Technologies                                                                                  161

Figure 64 – Pumped Hydro Energy Storage System Layout………….. 162

Figure 65 – Global Hydroelectric Energy Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 165

Figure 66 – Hydropower Installed Capacity by Country………………… 167

Figure 67 – Global Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Hydropower vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021…………………………………………………………. 168

Figure 68 – Global LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020                                                                                  168

Figure 69 – Hydropower Generation [TW h] by Region -1965-2020… 169

Figure 70- A Hydropower Plant………………………………………………. 171

Figure 71 – Global Hydroelectric Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030                                                                                  172

Figure 72 – Global LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020                                                                                  174

Figure 73 – Ocean thermal energy Conversion System (Right) and Oscillating Water Column System (Left)…………………. 175

Figure 74 – Wave Power System……………………………………………. 178

Figure 75 – Global Marine Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……. 179

Figure 76 – Global Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Nuclear Energy Plants vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………………………………. 181

Figure 77 – Global LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020                                                                                  182

Figure 78 – Global Nuclear Energy Plants > 1 GW Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 184

Figure 79 – Global Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Offshore Wind vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021…………………………………………………………. 186

Figure 80 – Wind Turbine Power and Size 1985-2030…………………. 187

Figure 81 – Global LCOEs from Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020                                                                                  187

Figure 82 – U.S. DOE Offshore Wind Energy 2030 Goals…………….. 190

Figure 83- Global Installed Base Power [MW] of Offshore Wind Power to 2020……………………………………………………………. 190

Figure 84 – Annual 2001-2021 Additional Offshore Wind Installed Capacity [GW] China vs. the Rest of World……………… 191

Figure 85 – Global Offshore Wind Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030                                                                                  195

Figure 86 – Onshore Wind Turbines LCOE, Size, Capacity & Impacts – 2030………………………………………………………………. 196

Figure 87 – Global Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Onshore Wind Power vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………………………………. 197

Figure 88 – Global LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020                                                                                  197

Figure 89 – Global Onshore Wind Power Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030                                                                                  200

Figure 90 – Global Other Energy Storage Modalities Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 202

Figure 91 – Global Other Renewable Energy Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 204

Figure 92 – Global Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Rooftop Solar vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021…………………………………………………………. 206

Figure 93 – Global Rooftop Solar PV Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030.. 209

Figure 94 – Global Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Small Nuclear Reactors vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………………………………. 210

Figure 95 – Global LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020                                                                                  211

Figure 96 – Global Small Nuclear Reactors Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 213

Figure 97 – Installed Base of Solar PV by Country……………………… 215

Figure 98 – Global Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Solar PV vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021………………………………………………………………. 216

Figure 99 – Global LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020                                                                                  217

Figure 100 – Ground Mounted Solar PV System………………………… 218

Figure 101 -The DOE Solar PV Deployment [GW] Outlook 2020-2050                                                                                  219

Figure 102 – Global Solar PV (Utility Scale) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 221

Figure 103 – System Power Rating and Discharge Times Of Energy Storage Technologies………………………………………… 223

Figure 104 – Thermal Energy Storage (TES) System Layout………… 224

Figure 105 – Residential Thermal Energy Storage……………………… 225

Figure 106 – Global Thermal Energy Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 228

Figure 107 – Waste Management Process………………………………… 230

Figure 108 – UN Projection of the Global Waste [M Ton/Annum] Quantity – 1950-2050…………………………………………. 231

Figure 109 – Global Waste to Energy Plants Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 233

Figure 110 – Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………….. 236

Figure 111 – Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………. 237

Figure 112 – Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market by Region [$B] – 2022-2030…………………………………….. 238

Figure 113 – North America Final Energy Demand by Sector [EJ]….. 239

Figure 114 – North America Primary Energy Consumption by Sector [EJ]                                                                                  240

Figure 115 – Cumulative 2022-2030 North America Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market by Sector [$B]……. 242

Figure 116 – North America Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030………………………………………………………………. 243

Figure 117 – North America Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030………………………………………………………………. 244

Figure 118 – Latin America Final Energy Demand by Sector [EJ]…… 245

Figure 119 – Latin America Primary Energy Consumption by Sector [EJ]                                                                                  247

Figure 120 – Cumulative 2022-2030 Latin America Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market by Sector [$B]……. 248

Figure 121 – Latin America Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030………………………………………………………………. 249

Figure 122 – Latin America Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030………………………………………………………………. 250

Figure 123 – Europe Final Energy Demand by Sector [EJ]……………. 251

Figure 124 – Europe Primary Energy Consumption by Sector [EJ]…. 252

Figure 125 – Cumulative 2022-2030 Europe Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market by Sector [$B]……. 254

Figure 126 – Europe Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…… 255

Figure 127 – Europe Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030….. 256

Figure 128 – MEA Final Energy Demand by Sector [EJ]………………. 257

Figure 129 – MEA Primary Energy Consumption by Sector [EJ]…….. 258

Figure 130 – Cumulative 2022-2030 Global Middle East & Africa Change Mitigation & Adaptation Market by Sector [$B]. 260

Figure 131 – Middle East & Africa Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030………………………………………………………………. 261

Figure 132 – Middle East & Africa Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030………………………………………………………………. 262

Figure 133 – Australia, New Zealand, Japan and South Korea Final Energy Demand by Sector [EJ]…………………………….. 263

Figure 134 – Australia, New Zealand, Japan and South Korea Primary Energy Consumption by Sector [EJ]………………………. 265

Figure 135 – Cumulative 2022-2030 Asia Pacific Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market by Sector [$B]……. 267

Figure 136 – Asia Pacific Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030………………………………………………………………. 268

Figure 137 – Asia Pacific Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030………………………………………………………………. 269

Figure 138 – Energy Use Per Person, 2019………………………………. 270

Figure 139 – Consumption-Based Energy Use Per Person: Global Map, 2020………………………………………………………………. 271

Figure 140 – Consumption-Based Energy Use Per Person: Selected Countries………………………………………………………… 271

Figure 141 – Primary Energy Consumption by World Region – 1965-2020………………………………………………………………. 272

Figure 142 – World Energy Trilemma Index: Leading Countries – 2021                                                                                  273

Figure 143 – Net-Zero Electricity Generation and Distribution Market Share by Country – 2030…………………………………….. 279

Figure 144 – U.S. Electricity Generation by Major Energy Source, 1950-2020………………………………………………………………. 291

Figure 145 – Canada Electricity Generation by Energy Source [%], 2018                                                                                  295

Figure 146 – Energy Consumption by Source, Argentina……………… 298

Figure 147 – Electricity Generation In Argentina In 2020, By Type Of Fuel* (In Terawatt Hours)……………………………………. 299

Figure 148 – Brazil Power Generation Supply, 2020…………………… 302

Figure 149 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Chile 1990-2020 306

Figure 150 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe)………… 309

Figure 151 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Cuba 1990-2020                                                                                  311

Figure 152 – Ecuador Power Generation, 2020………………………….. 313

Figure 153 – Mexico Electricity Generation by Technology (October 2020)……………………………………………………………… 317

Figure 154 – Distribution of Electricity Generation in Peru in 2020, By Source……………………………………………………………. 319

Figure 155 – Venezuela: Installed and Available Generating Capacity and Supply, 2000–2020……………………………………… 323

Figure 156 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Austria 1990-2020                                                                                  326

Figure 157 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source in Belarus (Mtoe)                                                                                  328

Figure 158 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Belgium 1990-2019                                                                                  331

Figure 159 – Bulgaria Installed Energy Capacity………………………… 333

Figure 160 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Czech Republic 1990-2019……………………………………………………….. 336

Figure 161 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Denmark 1990-2019………………………………………………………………. 338

Figure 162 – Electricity Generation by Energy Source, Finland, 2000-2019………………………………………………………………. 342

Figure 163 – France Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source 1990-2019                                                                                  345

Figure 164 -The German Renewable Energy Use & Reduced Energy Consumption Scenario – 2005-2050………………………. 349

Figure 165 – Germany Electricity Generation per Week 22 – 2021 by Energy Generation Mode……………………………………. 350

Figure 166 – Sources of Large-Scale Energy Capacity [MW] Installed in Greece as of June 2020……………………………………… 354

Figure 167 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Hungary 1990-2019                                                                                  356

Figure 168 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Italy 1990-2019. 359

Figure 169 – Distribution of Electricity Generation in the Netherlands in 2020, By Source……………………………………………….. 362

Figure 170 – National Electricity Generation by Energy Source, Norway, in 2019……………………………………………………………. 365

Figure 171 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Poland 1990-2019                                                                                  367

Figure 172 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Portugal 1990-2019                                                                                  370

Figure 173 – Romania Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe)                                                                                  373

Figure 174 – Russia Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe). 376

Figure 175 – Serbian Energy Distribution, 2019…………………………. 380

Figure 176 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Slovak Republic 1990-2020……………………………………………………….. 382

Figure 177 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Spain 1990-2020                                                                                  384

Figure 178 – Sweden Energy Consumption, 1800-2020………………. 387

Figure 179 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Switzerland 1990-2020………………………………………………………………. 391

Figure 180 – The UK Inland Energy Consumption, 1990 and 2020 by Energy Source………………………………………………….. 393

Figure 181 – The UK Electricity Generation, 1990 and 2020 by Energy Source……………………………………………………………. 394

Figure 182 – Solar PV Installed by Quarter in UK……………………….. 395

Figure 183 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source in Ukraine (Mtoe)                                                                                  397

Figure 184 – Installed Energy Capacity of Algeria, 2019 vs. Projected 2028………………………………………………………………. 401

Figure 185 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe)………… 403

Figure 186 – Iran’s Electricity Generation by Fuel, 2019………………. 406

Figure 187 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source in Israel (Mtoe)                                                                                  409

Figure 188 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Saudi Arabia, 1990-2019………………………………………………………………. 414

Figure 189 – South Africa Electricity Consumption Breakdown by Sector (2020, %)………………………………………………………… 417

Figure 190 – Electricity Generation in Turkey from 2019 to 2020, by Fuel                                                                                  420

Tables

Table 1 – Electricity Production by Country – 2020……………………….. 41

Table 2 – Energy & Electricity and Per Capita Consumption by Country / Region……………………………………………………………… 42

Table 3 – Renewable vs. Fossil Fuels Heating Efficiency Cost [$ Cent / KWh] – 2020 & 2030 F…………………………………………. 50

Table 4 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Technology [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………… 55

Table 5 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Revenue [$B] – 2020-2030……………………………………. 57

Table 6 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Region [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 57

Table 7 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Country [$B] – 2020-2030………………………………………………… 59

Table 8 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Technology Products & Services [$B] Markets – 2022-2030…………. 82

Table 9 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Markets Annual Growth Rates [%] – 2022-2030………………………………. 83

Table 10 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Products & Services Markets Shares [%] – 2022-2030……………….. 85

Table 11 – Global Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………… 96

Table 12 – Global Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030…………………………………………………………. 96

Table 13 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market, Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Share [%] – 2022-2030….. 96

Table 14 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market, Climate Adapted Water Infrastructure Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………… 97

Table 15 – Global Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 102

Table 16 – Global Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………… 103

Table 17 – Global Warming Mitigation Market, Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………. 103

Table 18 – Cost (Euro/MWh) of Domestic Heating in France………… 107

Table 19 – Cost (Euro/MW) of District Heating in France……………… 108

Table 20 – Global Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 108

Table 21 – Global Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………………….. 109

Table 22 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market, Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 109

Table 23 – Global Direct Solar Water Heating Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 114

Table 24 – Global Direct Solar Water Heating Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 115

Table 25 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market, Direct Solar Water Heating Market Share [%] – 2022-2030….. 115

Table 26 – Global Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………… 122

Table 27 – Global Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………….. 123

Table 28 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market, Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………….. 123

Table 29 – Global Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 128

Table 30 – Global Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030………………………… 129

Table 31 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market, Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Share [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 129

Table 32 – Global Thermal Energy Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 135

Table 33 – Global Thermal Energy Storage Market Dynamics [%] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 135

Table 34 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market, Thermal Energy Storage Market Share [%] – 2022-2030………… 136

Table 35 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………………………… 137

Table 36 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market AGRs [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………………………… 138

Table 37 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Region [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 140

Table 38 – North America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Sector – 2020-2030………………………….. 143

Table 39 – North America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………….. 145

Table 40 – North America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market AGRs [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………. 146

Table 41 – Latin America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Sector – 2020-2030………………………….. 149

Table 42 – Latin America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………….. 151

Table 43 – Latin America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market AGRs [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………. 152

Table 44 – Europe Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Sector – 2020-2030……………………………………….. 155

Table 45 – Europe Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030………………………….. 157

Table 46 – Europe Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market AGRs [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030………………………… 158

Table 47 – Middle East & Africa Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Sector – 2020-2030………………… 161

Table 48 – Middle East & Africa Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…… 163

Table 49 – Middle East & Africa Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market AGRs [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030….. 164

Table 50 – Asia Pacific Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Sector – 2020-2030………………………………… 168

Table 51 – Asia Pacific Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………………… 170

Table 52 – Asia Pacific Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market AGRs [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………. 171

Table 53 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Technologies Market Size [$B] By Country – 2020-2030………………………… 176

Table 54 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market AGRs [%] By Country – 2020-2030…………………………………………. 177

Table 55 – National Market Shares of the Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market [%] – 2020-2030…………………………… 179

Table 56 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Infrastructure Markets Size [$B] By Country – 2020-2030………………………… 182

Table 57 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Products Sales [$B] By Country – 2020-2030…………………………………………. 184

Table 58 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Maintenance Markets Size [$B] By Country – 2020-2030………………………… 185

Table 59 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Upgrades Markets Size [$B] By Country – 2020-2030……………………………….. 187

Table 60 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Other* Revenue Sources [$B] By Country – 2020-2030…………………… 189

Table 61 – Renewable Energy and Climate Targets in the United States.                                                                                  192

Figures

Figure 1 – COP26 Pledges & Targets Based GHG Emission [GTn] Forecast to 2030………………………………………………… 30

Figure 2 – Global Warming 2010-2020 by GHG Source…………………. 31

Figure 3 – Renewable Energy Generation By Technology & By User.. 33

Figure 4 – Greenhouse Gas Emissions [%] by Sector……………………. 34

Figure 5 – Climate Change Causes and Effects…………………………… 35

Figure 6- Global Energy demand (left) & GHS Emission (Right) By Sector – 2020…………………………………………………….. 36

Figure 7 – GHG Emission per GWh of Energy Production – 2020…….. 37

Figure 8 – Average USA Levelized cost [$/MWh] of Electricity By Energy Technology – 2020……………………………………. 37

Figure 9 – Renewable Electricity Generation by Technology and Region                                                                                    38

Figure 10 – Global Electricity Consumption by Energy Source – 1985-2020………………………………………………………………… 38

Figure 11 – Levelized Cost [$/MWh] of Energy, by Source – 2008-2020                                                                                    38

Figure 12 – Renewable, Nuclear & Fossil Energy Prices [$/MWh] & Installed Capacity – 2010-2019……………………………… 39

Figure 13 – Global Warming vs. Number of Climate-Related Disasters – 1970-2032…………………………………………………………. 41

Figure 14 – Energy Storage: Duration Time and Rated Power by Modality……………………………………………………………. 41

Figure 15 – Renewable Generation Capacity By Region………………… 42

Figure 16 – Leading Renewable Energy Capacity [GW] by Country – 2020………………………………………………………………… 42

Figure 17 – Negative Emissions Role in Achieving NetZero……………. 43

Figure 18 – Global GHG Emission Reduction [%] by Technology – 2030                                                                                    48

Figure 19 – Global Electricity Generation [000 TWh] by Source – 2010- 2040………………………………………………………………… 49

Figure 20 – Global Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Region [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………… 57

Figure 21 – Air Source Heat Pump: Winter & Summer Operation…….. 86

Figure 22 – Air Source Heat Pump, Heating Cycle……………………….. 87

Figure 23 – Air to Air Heat Pump………………………………………………. 88

Figure 24 – Air to Water Heat Pump………………………………………….. 89

Figure 25 – Performance Standards For residential AC and Heat Pumps                                                                                    94

Figure 26 – Global Air Sourced Heat Pumps Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………… 95

Figure 27 – Global Average Levelized Cost of Energy Generation [$/MWh] Concentrating Solar Power vs. Other Electric Power Sources – Q-4 2021……………………………………. 97

Figure 28 – Concentrating Solar Power System Layout and Costs…… 98

Figure 29 – Global LCOEs From Newly Commissioned, Utility-Scale Renewable Power Generation Technologies, 2010-2020 99

Figure 30 – Global Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………………….. 101

Figure 31 – Applications of Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy… 104

Figure 32 – Closed (Left) & Open (Right) loop Geothermal Heat Pumps                                                                                  105

Figure 33 – EU Areas Suitable for Geothermal Networks & Actual Geothermal Installed Capacity……………………………… 106

Figure 34 – Global Direct Geothermal Heating & Cooling Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………………………………….. 107

Figure 35 – Residential Direct Solar Water Heating System………….. 109

Figure 36 – Total Installed Solar Heating Area by Region – 2020……. 110

Figure 37 – Direct Solar Water Heating System Elements…………….. 110

Figure 38 – Direct Solar Heating Capacity [KW/1000 citizens] in 10 Leading Countries – 2020……………………………………. 111

Figure 39 – Global Solar Thermal Capacity [TWh] and Energy [TWh] – 2000-2022……………………………………………………….. 112

Figure 40 – Distribution of Solar Thermal Systems for Newly Installed Water Collector by Region – 2020…………………………. 113

Figure 41 – Global Direct Solar Water Heating Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 113

Figure 42 – Performance Standards For residential AC and Heat Pumps                                                                                  117

Figure 43 – Thermoelectric Effect……………………………………………. 118

Figure 44 – Magtor Linear Motor Oscillator Drive………………………… 120

Figure 45 – Global Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning & Refrigeration (ACR) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030……………………… 121

Figure 46 – Energy Consumption By End-Use (Excludes Transport, Energy Losses in Production or Transmission And Non-Motive Power Industrial Energy Uses)……………………. 125

Figure 47 – Global Energy-Efficient Electric Appliances (w/o ACR) Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………. 128

Figure 48 – System Power Rating and Discharge Times Of Energy Storage Technologies………………………………………… 129

Figure 49 – Thermal Energy Storage (TES) System Layout………….. 130

Figure 50 – Residential Thermal Energy Storage……………………….. 131

Figure 51 – Global Thermal Energy Storage Market Size [$B] – 2022-2030………………………………………………………………. 134

Figure 52 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………………………… 137

Figure 53 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………………………… 138

Figure 54 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Region [$B] – 2022-2030…………………………………………………….. 139

Figure 55 – North America Final Energy Demand by Sector [EJ]……. 140

Figure 56 – North America Primary Energy Consumption by Sector [EJ]                                                                                  141

Figure 57 – Cumulative 2022-2030 North America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Sector [$B]…………….. 143

Figure 58 – North America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………….. 144

Figure 59 – North America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………. 145

Figure 60 – Latin America Final Energy Demand by Sector [EJ]…….. 146

Figure 61 – Latin America Primary Energy Consumption by Sector [EJ]                                                                                  148

Figure 62 – Cumulative 2022-2030 Latin America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Sector [$B]…………….. 149

Figure 63 – Latin America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………….. 150

Figure 64 – Latin America Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………. 151

Figure 65 – Europe Final Energy Demand by Sector [EJ]……………… 152

Figure 66 – Europe Primary Energy Consumption by Sector [EJ]…… 153

Figure 67 – Cumulative 2022-2030 Europe Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Sector [$B]……………………………… 155

Figure 68 – Europe Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………………… 156

Figure 69 – Europe Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………………….. 157

Figure 70 – MEA Final Energy Demand by Sector [EJ]………………… 158

Figure 71 – MEA Primary Energy Consumption by Sector [EJ]………. 159

Figure 72 – Cumulative 2022-2030 Global Middle East & Africa Change Mitigation & Adaptation Market by Sector [$B]…………. 161

Figure 73 – Middle East & Africa Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…… 162

Figure 74 – Middle East & Africa Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030….. 163

Figure 75 – Australia, New Zealand, Japan and South Korea Final Energy Demand by Sector [EJ]…………………………….. 164

Figure 76 – Australia, New Zealand, Japan and South Korea Primary Energy Consumption by Sector [EJ]………………………. 166

Figure 77 – Cumulative 2022-2030 Asia Pacific Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market by Sector [$B]………………………… 168

Figure 78 – Asia Pacific Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Size [$M] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030…………………… 169

Figure 79 – Asia Pacific Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Share [%] by Revenue Source – 2020-2030……………. 170

Figure 80 – Energy Use Per Person, 2019………………………………… 171

Figure 81 – Consumption-Based Energy Use Per Person: Global Map, 2020………………………………………………………………. 172

Figure 82 – Consumption-Based Energy Use Per Person: Selected Countries………………………………………………………… 172

Figure 83 – Primary Energy Consumption by World Region – 1965-2020                                                                                  173

Figure 84 – World Energy Trilemma Index: Leading Countries – 2021 174

Figure 85 – Passive Active Heating and Cooling Market Share by Country – 2030…………………………………………………. 180

Figure 86 – U.S. Electricity Generation by Major Energy Source, 1950-2020………………………………………………………………. 192

Figure 87 – Canada Electricity Generation by Energy Source [%], 2018                                                                                  196

Figure 88 – Energy Consumption by Source, Argentina……………….. 199

Figure 89 – Electricity Generation In Argentina In 2020, By Type Of Fuel* (In Terawatt Hours)……………………………………. 200

Figure 90 – Brazil Power Generation Supply, 2020…………………….. 203

Figure 91 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Chile 1990-2020. 207

Figure 92 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe)………….. 210

Figure 93 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Cuba 1990-2020. 212

Figure 94 – Ecuador Power Generation, 2020……………………………. 214

Figure 95 – Mexico Electricity Generation by Technology (October 2020)                                                                                  218

Figure 96 – Distribution of Electricity Generation in Peru in 2020, By Source……………………………………………………………. 220

Figure 97 – Venezuela: Installed and Available Generating Capacity and Supply, 2000–2020……………………………………………. 224

Figure 98 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Austria 1990-2020                                                                                  227

Figure 99 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source in Belarus (Mtoe)                                                                                  229

Figure 100 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Belgium 1990-2019                                                                                  232

Figure 101 – Bulgaria Installed Energy Capacity………………………… 234

Figure 102 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Czech Republic 1990-2019……………………………………………………….. 237

Figure 103 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Denmark 1990-2019………………………………………………………………. 239

Figure 104 – Electricity Generation by Energy Source, Finland, 2000-2019………………………………………………………………. 243

Figure 105 – France Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source 1990-2019                                                                                  246

Figure 106 -The German Renewable Energy Use & Reduced Energy Consumption Scenario – 2005-2050………………………. 250

Figure 107 – Germany Electricity Generation per Week 22 – 2021 by Energy Generation Mode……………………………………. 251

Figure 108 – Sources of Large-Scale Energy Capacity [MW] Installed in Greece as of June 2020……………………………………… 255

Figure 109 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Hungary 1990-2019                                                                                  257

Figure 110 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Italy 1990-2019. 260

Figure 111 – Distribution of Electricity Generation in the Netherlands in 2020, By Source……………………………………………….. 263

Figure 112 – National Electricity Generation by Energy Source, Norway, in 2019……………………………………………………………. 266

Figure 113 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Poland 1990-2019                                                                                  268

Figure 114 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Portugal 1990-2019                                                                                  271

Figure 115 – Romania Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe)                                                                                  274

Figure 116 – Russia Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe). 277

Figure 117 – Serbian Energy Distribution, 2019…………………………. 281

Figure 118 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Slovak Republic 1990-2020……………………………………………………….. 283

Figure 119 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Spain 1990-2020                                                                                  285

Figure 120 – Sweden Energy Consumption, 1800-2020………………. 288

Figure 121 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Switzerland 1990-2020………………………………………………………………. 292

Figure 122 – The UK Inland Energy Consumption, 1990 and 2020 by Energy Source………………………………………………….. 294

Figure 123 – The UK Electricity Generation, 1990 and 2020 by Energy Source……………………………………………………………. 295

Figure 124 – Solar PV Installed by Quarter in UK……………………….. 296

Figure 125 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source in Ukraine (Mtoe)                                                                                  298

Figure 126 – Installed Energy Capacity of Algeria, 2019 vs. Projected 2028………………………………………………………………. 302

Figure 127 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe)………… 304

Figure 128 – Iran’s Electricity Generation by Fuel, 2019………………. 307

Figure 129 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source in Israel (Mtoe)                                                                                  310

Figure 130 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Saudi Arabia, 1990-2019………………………………………………………………. 315

Figure 131 – South Africa Electricity Consumption Breakdown by Sector (2020, %)………………………………………………………… 318

Figure 132 – Electricity Generation in Turkey from 2019 to 2020, by Fuel                                                                                  321

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